The Royal House of Hannover
House of Guelf
All present members of the Royal Family have the titles Prince/Princess of Hannover, Prince/Princess of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke/Duchess zu Brunswick and Lüneburg with the style of Royal Highness (HRH).
Ancestor of this line is Duke Wilhelm zu Brunswick and Lüneburg who received in the partition of the Brunswick territories on 15.03.1569 the Principality of Lüneburg. Under him the possessions of the Family s grew with the addition of the lower county and city of Hoya in 1582 and the county of Diepholz in 1585.When he died in 1592 he left among others 7 sons. By an agreement between the brothers from 27.09.1592 between the brothers the the goverment was entrusted to the oldest brother Ernst II. for 8 years. He continued with their assent for another 10 years, until another agreement of 03.12.1610 gave him the principality of Lüneburg and all its dependencies for him and his descendants as an indivisible whole. When he died without leaving descendants in 1611 the next brother Christian followed him in the reign. In 1612 the remaining brothers made an similiar agreement among eachother which was confirmed by the Emperor. To maintiain the unitiy of the Territory the borhters made an agreement that only of them should marry and have descendants. In 1617 the choose the youngest brother Georg. After Christian's death in 1633 he was followed by August I. who reigned until 1636 and was followed by Friedrich IV. During the reign of August the brohters received Calenberg which was not added to the Pricipality but given to the married brother Georg who had his residence in Hannover.
Georg died in 1641 before his turn to reignCelle came up. He left an unusual will. He instituted the rule that Celle (which his sons were due to inherit from their unmarried uncle Friedrich) and his own principality of Calenberg should never be united, as long as there were two males left in his issue. Moreover, he laid down the rule that the elder male should have the right to choose which of the two principalities he wished to rule.
He left four sons from his marriage to Princess Anna Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt
- Christian Ludwig, he had succeeded in Calenberg after the death of his father, and after the the death of his uncle he choose for himself Celle with Grubenhagen and Lüneburg. He ws married to Pricness Dorothea Sophie of Schleswig-Holstein--Sonderburg-Glücksburg but the marriage remained without childless.
- Georg Wilhelm, afterh the death of his brother Christian Ludwig in 1665 he receieved Celle, Diepholz, Hoya, Schauen and Walkenried and took up residence in Celle. In 1655 he had become enganged to Princess Sophie of the Palatinate but the engagement ewas taken off and Princess Sophie became engaged to the youngest brother Ernst August. Georg Wilhelm had promised his brother in 1658 that he would never marry and therefore all lands would fall to Ernst August (as the other brothers where unmarried at that time). However he later meet Eleonore d'Olbreuse who he brought to his Court in 1665. They had only one surviving child, a daughter born in 1666. In 1674 Eléonore was created Countess of Harburg and her daughter Countess of Wilhelmsburg by the Emperor. Finally, in 1675, Georg Wilhelm formally married Eléonore, with the consent of Ernst August as well as that of Anton Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, of the elder line. The two kinsmen also signed the marriage contract. The contract stipulated that the wife should not use the title of duchess of Brunswick; that the issue of the marriage would be considered legitimate and entitled to the title and rank of imperial count, until it should receive greater dignities from the Emperor; and that it would have no claims to succeed in the principality as long as a living male heir of the line of Brunswick-Lüneburg still exists. There was also a clause that the daughter, Sophia Dorothea, would use the title of duchess of Brunswick if she should marry into an altfürstlich house. In 16782 Sophie Dorothe was married to her first cousin Georg Ludwig, the oldest son of Ernst August.
- Sophie Dorothea, married to her first cousin Georg I., King of Great Britain, Elector of Hannover
- Johann Friedrich, after the death of his oldest brother Christian Ludwig in 1665 he received Calenberg with Grubenhagen and Göttingen. He made the village Haringehusen 1666 under the name of Herrenhausen his summer residence, provided a first simple palace and began the installation of the Great Garden. Also, the system of the zoo in Kirchrode goes back to his initiative. The Castle Church in linen castle he was a Catholic rite consecrated for worship and took Capuchin monks to Hanover. In 1674 he led an official order, which until 1808 was replaced by the Westphalian territorial organization. In 1676, he called the then only 30-year-old scholar and philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz as a court historian and librarian at his court. Also, it goes to the foundation of the later Royal Library, now the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library, back. His elaborate style of government financed by Johann Friedrich French support funds.
Johann Friedrich was married to Princess Benedicta Henriette of the Palatinate. They had 4 daughters
- Johanna Sophie, died young
- Charlotte Felicitas, marrie to Rinaldo d'Este, Duke of Medna and Reggio
- Henriette Marie
- Amalie Wilhelmine, married to Emperor Josef I., Archduke of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia
- Ernst August, he succeeded his brother Johann Friedrich in Calenberg, Göttingen and Grubenhagen. In 1683 he introduced against the opposition of his younger sons the promigenitur in his territories. In 1692 he was raised to the rank of Elector.
Electorate of Hannover
After the death of his brother Johann Friedrich, Ernst August in 1679 inherited the Principality of Calenberg. The main policy objective of Ernst August was the acquisition of the electoral dignity for his calenbergian house. Since 1689 so he led negotiations with the Emperor. 1682 Ernst August had already proclaimed the right of Primogenitur for his country, which was a prerequisite for obtaining the electoral dignity. Consequently, the eldest son, Georg Ludwig would be the sole heir of the Welf principalities Calenberg and Grubenhagen. By anm inheritance contract with the Celler Duke Georg Wilhelm was also ensured that after his death the Principality of Lüneburg also fell to the Guelf resident in Hanover. Also, the state budget was brought into balance and overall management less familiar Minister Franz Ernst Graf von Platen and Mr. Grote led by the Office of the princes by consultation. As the supreme advisory and controlling authority was the prince of reaching back to watching Secret advice. Under this administration passed the various colleges, the law firm, mainly for cases that chamber for the finance, the Consistory and the Council of War, all with strictly separate departments. In 1692 the new (ninth) Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire was created by the Emperor. The ruling in the Principality of Calenberg line of Guelf was awarded this ninth Electorate. This was possible should take place a perpetual Union between the houses of Habsburg and Lüneburg by a treaty between the Holy Roman Emperor and the two lines of the House of Lüneburg, according to the grant of the Electorate of Hanover House, with the possible participation of Celle. For all future elections, the the Hanoverian Guelfs gave their fixed approval to always the firsttborn Habsburg. With the investiture of the Electorate was accompanied by a short, little bloody battle with the brunswick-wolfenbüttel line between the house of Brunswick-Lüneburg. The wolfenbüttel between Guelphs felt the increase in calenbergischen line in Hanover unbearable reset. When their protests went unheeded about, they joined with other German princes in 1700 in Nuremberg for "covenant of the corresponding princes". If necessary, they wanted to prevent by force of arms the Kurerhöhung Hanover. In the same year overpowered Georg Wilhelm and Georg Ludwig with the assistance of the Emperor Wolfenbüttel between Princes and compelled them to recognize the electoral dignity. .
Elector Ernst August was married to Princess Sophie of the Palatinate and had with her the following children:
- Georg Ludwig, succeeded his father as Elector
- Friedrich August, fallen as a major general in the Great Turkish War in St. Georgen, Transylvania
- Maximilian Wilehlm, imeprial Field Marshall
- Sophie Charlotte, married to Elector Friedrich III. of Bradenburg, from 1701 King Friedrich I. in Prussia
- Karl Philipp, fallen in 1680 in the Great Turkish War at the Battle of Pristina
- Christian Heinrich, General Wax Master drowned in the Danube near Ulm in the campaign against the French in the War of Spanish Succession
- Ernst Agust, Duke of York and Albany
The largest part of the reign of George I. was founded by two major wars (the War of Spanish Succession and the Great Northern War) filled in , where both George as Elector , as well as a strong King took part in its properties . His warlike engagement ended with a considerable increase in its country . The union with Great Britain transformed electoral Hannover into an adjoining country whose nobility exploited freedoms without strong leadership princely . In economic terms, the country benefited from new trade relations . The most agrarian land far produced more products than it needed for its own use , and found a buyer in the British Empire to its surplus. The emerging industry of Great Britain could provide the electorate with missing goods in return. electoral Hannover appeared during the 18th Century political relationship almost exclusively as a satellite of Great Britain , it nevertheless raised the prestige and importance of the land in the kingdom as a result of this connection considerably . His influence in domestic affairs was just behind the back of Habsburg and Brandenburg-Prussia. George I's government , was significant for the kurbraunschweigisch - Lüneburg country, as they were officially called since 1705 in every respect . Returned from the campaign on the Rhine at the end of 1707 , the Elector turned her out also at its borders Northern War battles of his attention to. The with Denmark proposed defensive and offensive alliance against Karl XII. however, did not materialize. Still standing spa Brunswick-Lüneburg , which was militarily well prepared since that time , ready to intervene at the right moment , to the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 vainly strove rich duchies of Bremen and Verden, if necessary, to achieve by force of arms to round out the territorial holdings. Meanwhile the Elector contented to take the Protestants in the high pins Münster , Paderborn , Hildesheim in his protection , as he gave his hand to the Catholics in his lands complete religious freedom . Hildesheim was briefly occupied militarily. On 01.08.1714 the British Queen Anne of the House of Stuart died. Although the Elector of Hanover moved to London to settle there but made no direct constitutional amendment in the Electorate . Gradually it became clear that Governor and Privy Council were now the actual rulers. The Privy Council kept the negotiations with the stands , the control of the national administration, finance, justice , spiritual , military and foreign affairs , and subject to electoral confirm the appointment of officials with the exception of the highest ranks, so the actual government of the country under the condition of regular reporting to the ruler in his hand. The colleges under him for each department , office , pantry, Consistory and war stood firm with him through the extracted exclusively from among its department heads in constant direct communication . The rich income from the domains of direct and indirect taxes, which had even at times result in surpluses while the shiny royal household of the Prince of the last generation immigrant , less the relatively significant expenditure on the civil service and in Hanover persisting royal household , in the Checkout the Elector - King and allowed despite significant cost for the standing army the creation of an important treasure house . Meanwhile, led the tenacity of King Charl XII . of Sweden , near the threat of Russian troops in Mecklenburg, the fear that the Northern War completely take down Germany and the Czar had only recently helped an approximation of the Danish King Frederik IV of Brunswick- Lüneburg and spa while the other interested German Prince brought that one year later to an offensive and defensive alliance between Denmark and electoral Brunswick-Lüneburg Brunswick led to Congress for agreement on the Nordic peace treatises , beginning in 1714 with mutual guarantee . Denmark secured the retention of standing time under Danish administration Swedish duchies of Bremen and Verden in electoral Hannover . On the other hand, the permanent union of Schleswig with Denmark should be guaranteed. A final security in the possession of the duchies of Bremen (not the Free Imperial City of Bremen ) and Verden , which , because of their rich income ( a quarter million annually reichstaler ) valuable, the Treaty of Stockholm ( November 1719 ) granted, in which Sweden against payment of one million Thaler relinquished his claim to the duchies to the electorate . The imperial investiture of the same , also in the Braunschweig -Wolfenbüttel was taken, however, took place only in 1733. George I also made sure that in the 1720s far-reaching plans of the Habsburgs against France were thwarted by closed Kurhannover with the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm I "The Wall Street Alliance " in Herrenhausen to preserve the existing state of the law ..
Elector and King George I. had in 1682 married his first cousin Princess Sophia Dorothea of Celle, the only child of the elder brother of his father. The sole purpose of the marriage was the union of the territories of Hannover and Celle, and the couple alienated rapidly. Georg Ludwig preferred the company of his mistress before Ehrengard Melusine von der Schulenburg, which he later made to the Duchess of Kendal and Munster in the UK and with whom he had at least three illegitimate children. Careless favor of Count Philip Christoph von Königsmarck, who grew up on her father's farm as a page, gave the Hanoverian court to excuse Sophie Dorothea offensive to accuse a relationship with Königsmarck. The Count was on 01.07.1694 murdered and thrown his body into the line. The murder appears to have been carried out by four courtiers George, one of which is for 150,000 dollars received, representing about one hundred times the salary of a senior minister. The marriage was dissolved on 28.12.1694 and Sophia Dorothea banished to the castle Ahlden where she was held captive until her death in the year in 1726. That she had been unfaithful to her husband, has not been established. Access to their children and their father was forbidden her, as she was not allowed to remarry. She received a steady income and servant, but was allowed to leave only when strictly supervised rides the castle. They had 2 children
- Georg August, who succeeded his father as Elector and King
- Sophie Dorothea married to King Friedrich Wilhelm I. in Prussi
After the death of Elector and King George I. on 11.06.1727 his only son Georg August followed him as Elector and King George II. He shared with his father George the preference for the German home country , where he liked to stay. With his cousin and brother-in-law Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia he was from personal antipathy and mutual rivalry consistently in a very awkward relationship . The preference of the Prussian king for long soldiers and the ruthlessness of his Hanoverian recruiters in 1731 led to a serious complication. Already the armies of both princes were ready to fight at the border each other, save through the dukes of Gotha and Brunswick have been prevented at the last moment of the fight. The Elector founded in 1737 , the University of Göttingen , which soon attracted with a rich endowment established through the efforts of the Minister of Munchausen to life and the most distinguished scholars in Germany and a large number of students per se . As an elector of the empire and guarantee of the Pragmatic Sanction George II stood during the Austrian War of Succession, 1741-1748 on the side of Maria Theresa. The victory of Dettingen on27.06.1743 is the last victory which was won by a British king at the head of his troops themselves . The Seven Years War hit electoral Hannober very hard, as it was one of the main battlegrounds . Austria's alliance with the old enemy France had perverted the political situation and Hanover conducted in the wake of Britain's alliance with Friedrich II. of Prussia. In the early years the Prussian- British forces were mostly in bad location . The great military skill of Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick -Wolfenbüttel , the Prussian King willingly gave his allies as Commander of the Allied army could not fully compensate for the losses of the first two years , before all the defeat of the Duke of Cumberland in Hastenbeck and the door is closing because the Convention of Kloster Zeven , which the French ceded the entire country for a year.Elector and King Georg II. was married to Pricness Karoline off Bradenburg-Ansbach. they had the following children
- Fredrick Louis, Prince of Wales, married to Princess Augusta of Saxe-.Gotha-Altenburg
- Augusta, married to Duke Karl II. of Brunswick-Wolffenbüttel
- George, who succeeded his grandfather as Eelctor and King
- Edward, Duke of York and Albany
- Elisabeth Caroline
- William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, married to Maria Walpole
- Sophia Matilda
- Caroline Auguste
- William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, married to Princess Mary of Great Britian, Princess of Hannover
- Henry Frederick, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn, married to Lady Anne Luttrell
- Louisa Anne
- Frederick William
- Caroline Mathilda, married to King Christian VII. of Denmark and Norway
- Anne, married to Prince Willem IV. of Orange and Nassau-Dietz, Stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands
- Amelia Sophia
- Caroline Elizabeth
- Georg William
- William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland
- Mary, married to Landgrave Friedrich II. of Hesse-Cassel
- Louisa, married to King Frederik V. of Denmark and Norway
Kingdom of Hannover
At the Congress of Vienna the Electorate itself on 12.10.1814 itself to the Kingdom of Hanover. Thanks to the negotiating skills of the Hanoverian cabinet minister at the English court, Count Ernst zu Münster, at the Congress of Vienna also a rounding of the territory was successfull. The Kingdom of Hanover, the Lower County of Lingen, the Duchy of Arenberg-Meppen, the County of Bentheim, the Bishopric of Hildesheim, the city of Goslar, areas of sub Eichsfeld and the Principality of East Frisia were allocated. The new King George III. who was almost blind because of cataracts and also suffered from rheumatism, seriously ill late in 1810. In his view, the disease had been triggered by the stress at which he suffered after he learned of the death of his youngest daughter, Amalia. He accepted the need for the Regency Act 1811 and the Prince of Wales took over the regency for the rest of George III.'s life. The end of 1811 the king finally fell into madness. Until his death he lived in seclusion at Windsor Castle The health of George III. deteriorated rapidly. He suffered from dementia, and was completely blind and increasingly deaf. He was not able to comprehend that he was declared King of Hanover in 1814, or that his wife had died in 1818. Over Christmas 1819, he suffered a very severe attack, saying 58 hours of uninterrupted confused and was not to go into the last weeks of his life in the area. He died on 29.01.1820.
King George III. had in 1761 married Pricness Cahrlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Notably, George never had a mistress (in contrast to his grandfather and his sons), and the pair apparently led a happy marriage.
- George, who succeeded his father as King
- Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, married to Princess Friederike of Prussia
- William, Duke of Clacrence, succeeded his brother, King George IV. as King
- Charlotte Mathilde, married to King Friedrich I. of Württemberg
- Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, married to Pricness Victoire of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
- Victoria, succeeded her uncle, King William IV. as Queen of Great Britain
- Elisabeth, married to Landgrave Friedrich VI. of Hesse-Homburg
- Ernst Agust, Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, succeeded his brother, King William IV. as King of Hannover
- Augustus, Duke of Susses, married in contravention to the Royal Marraiges Act (which meant that the marriage was null and void) to August Murray, married second to Lady Cecilia Underwood, who was created Duchess of Inverness
- Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, married to Princess Augusta of Hesse
- George, Duke of Cambrdige, married in contravention to the Royal Marraiges Act (which meant that the marriage was null and void) to Sarah Fairbrother
- Augusta, married to Grand Duke Friedrich Wilhelm of Mecklenburg-Streltiz
- Mary Adelaide, married to Duke Franz of Teck
- Mary, married to Prince William Frederick of Great Britain, Duke of Gloucester
King Georg IV. and his wife had 1 daughter
- Charlotte, married to Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, became in 1831 as Léopold I., King of the Belgians
- stillborn son
Because in Hannover the was the guelf law which similiar to the salic law prevented female succession as long as ther was an Heir in the House of Brunswick-Wolffenbüttel his brother Ernst August, Duke of Cumberland became King of Hannover.
King Ernst August proved to be unpopular ruler. Iin 1837 lifted the relatively liberal state constitution, which his predecessors had adopted in 1833 when he took office again. Against the abrogation of the Constitution in 1837 directed the acclaimed protest of the Göttingen Seven, which were then all dismissed as professors at the University of Göttingen.
King Ernst August died on 18.11.1851. He had in 1818 married Princess Friederike of Mecklenburg-Streltiz, who was already twice widowed from a Prince of Prussia and a Prince zu Solms-Braunfels.
They had 1 son
- Georg, who succeeded his father as King
King Georg V. had married on 18.02.1843 Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg. He gave her in 1857 Marienbrug Castleas birthday Gift which was build until 1867. Because of her departure into Exil in 1866 she saw it never again.
They had 3 children
- Ernst Agust, who succeeded his father as Head of the Royal House
- Friederike, married to Baron Alfon of Pawl-Rammingen
Crown Prince Ernst August had married on 22.12.1878 at Copenhagen Princess Thyra of Denmark, the youngest daugther of the danish King Chistian IX. Among her silbings where Queen Alexandra of Great Britain, the spouse of King Edward VII., Empress Maria Feodorovna of Russia, the spouse of Emperor Alexander III., King Frederik VIII. of Denmark and King Georg I. of the Hellenes.
They had 6 children
- Marie Louise, married to Prince Max of Baden
- Georg Wilhelm, died in a car crash in the forest near Nackel in Brandenburg
- Alexandra, married to Grand Duke Friedrich Franz IV. of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
- Ernst August
Prince Ernst August and Princess Viktoria Luise had several children
- Ernst August, succeeded his father as Head of the Royal House
- Georg Wilhelm married to Princess Sophie iof Greece and Denmark
- Welf, married to Wibke van Gunsteren
- Tanja, married first to Michael Naylor-Neyland, second to Edward Hooper
- Georg, married to Victoria Ann Bee
- Vera, married to Manuel Dmoch
- Nora, married to Christian Falk
- Friederike, married to Jerry Cyr
- Welf, married to Wibke van Gunsteren
- Friederike, married to King Paul I. of the Hellenes
- Christian, married to Mirelle Dutry
HRH Princess Alexandra
- Welf, married to Princess Alexandra zu Ysenburg in Büdingen and Wächtersbach
His successor as head ot Royal Houxse became his oldest son Ernst August who was born in 1914 as Hereditary Prince in Brunswick,. After the the end of the monarchy in 1918 he wend with his parents and siblings in the Austrian exile. He attended boarding school at Salem and after high school studied law in Göttingen. In 1936 he received his doctorate there as a doctor of law degree. During World War II he took part in the war against the Soviet Union, and served until January 1942 as Lieutenant on the staff of General Hoepner. In the spring of 1943, he was severely wounded in Kharkov. After the assassination of 20.07.1944 he was imprisoned for several weeks by the Gestapo in Berlin headquarters in the Prinz-Albrecht-Street. After the war, he fled with the entire family in front of the Red Army from Blankenburg Castle in the Harz to Marienburg Castle near Hanover. With the death of his father in 1953 he became head of the family of the Guelfs and Head of the House of Hanover. Under the direction of his wife Ortrud Marienburg Castle was converted into a palace museum. Prince Ernst August died on 09.12.1987 in the family possessions Calenberg in Schulenburg.
|HRH Princess Monika|
Prince Ernst August was twice married. First he married in 1951 in Hannover Princess Ortrud zu Schlewig-.Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. After her death in February 1980 he married in July 1981 Countess Monika zu Solms-Laubach.
children from his first marriage:
- Marie, married to Count Michael of Hochberg, Baron zu Fürstenstein
- Ernst August, who succeeded his father as head of the Royal House
- Ludwig Rudolph, married to Countess Isabelle zu Thurn and Valsassina-Como-Vercelli. After he found his death wife wo died from an ovedosis Cocain in Novemver 1988 he shot himself.
- Alexandra, married to Fürst Andreas zu Leiningen
- Heinrich, married to Thyra von Westernhagen
Ernst August is repeatedly caught in the media with violent or abusive outbursts. In January 1998 he beat before Calenberg Estate with his umbrella on a cameraman and was filmed by this which made headlines nationwide and brougt him the nickname "Prince spanking" and "beating August". . The Hanover Regional Court sentenced him to pay to the cameraman 15,000 Mark for pain and suffering . A criminal case has been set for assault against payment of 90,000 marks. In 1999, he was on the edge of the Salzburg Festival a "Bunte" photographer, so these suffered a bruise. In the first instance he was therefore sentenced to eight months suspended sentence and 500,000 marks fine in December 2001 by the District Court Jump , in the second instance before the Landgericht Hannover the procedure with regard to the more serious Kenyan allegations was set. He was also noticeable at the World Expo 2000 in Hanover when he urinated on the Turkish pavilion and it was photographed by a paparazzo , giving him time to time by the tabloids nicknamed "Pinkelprinz" earned . Mainly from the "Image "guided" "Pinkelprinz " campaign also led to another " outburst " because he , on the phone several times massively berated the head of the "Bild" editorial Hanover, Anne -Kathrin Berger and pointing out that he would only talk "with assholes like journalists" and so that the lady even knew best , " what makes their shit newspaper ." These calls were then printed in the picture and the newspaper filed a complaint against him. In 2004, Ernst August was initially convicted of grievous bodily harm to a fine of 445,000 euros , because he should have beaten hospitalized in January 2000, a German hotelier in Kenya. He also sought a retrial. In March 2007, rejected his application for revision by the District Court of Hildesheim in the first instance , by the Higher Regional Court of Celle was , however , granted . From the 15th June 2009 were renegotiated before the District Court of Hildesheim . On 09.03.2010 Ernst August was convicted of simple assault to a fine of 200,000 euros (40 daily rates ) , and he had given two slaps. A revision however was in April 2011 by the Higher Regional Court of Celle "manifestly unfounded" discarded as so is the verdict. judicata.
Prince Ernst August gave in 2004 the agricultural and forestry possession of the House of Hanover in Germany and Austria, including Marienburg Castle and the royal house in Herrenhausen and the exile seat of the family in Gmunden, his son Ernst August, who since 2012 directs himself the administration and also increasingly perceives the representation of the Guelf dynasty.
children from his first marriage:
children from his second marriage: