Sunday, May 19, 2013

german Houses: The Electoral House of Hesse

The Electoral House of Hesse

House of Lorraine-Brabant 

Toady all present members of hte Electoral Family bear the title Prince/Princess of Hesse with the style of Highness (HH). The Head of the House and his oldest son with their spouses bear the stle of Royal Highness (HRH). 

The House of Hesse descends at one side from the House of Brabant or the Reginares and on the other side  from a junior branch of of the Ludowinger's who until they died out in the male line where thee Landgraves of Thuringia. As matriarch of the House counts Elisabeth of Thuringia. The Ludowinger's had come in  1122  by marriage to the hessian  counties of the Gisone's before they became shortly afterwards in 1131 Landgrave's of Thuringia. Through the energy of Elisabeth's daughter Sophie, married Duchess of Brabant,  her son, Heinrich gained  the position of the Landgrave of Hesse. After the extincton of the Ludowinger's in the male line Sophie sat for a own separate hessian State territory for  her son in the Hessian-Thuringian War of Succession (1247-1264). 
Already in  1247 Sophie let  Heinrich be proclaiemd as landgrave the Mader heath and Marburg  By the Langdorfer treaty of 1263  Sophie secured  her son's possessions, the hessian territories of the Ludowinger's that Heinrich ruled independently from now on. Thurigina fell to the House Wettin. These areas included at that time the region between Wolfhagen Zierenberg, Eschwege, Alsfeld, Grünberg, Frankenberg and Biedenkopf. In the same year Heinrich earned a portion of the county Gleiberg with Gießen from  Count Ulrich I of Asperg (1283) of the house of the Count Palatine's of Tübingen He made initially Marburg, then from 1277 Kassel his residence and changed his name to "Landgrave of Hesse." Heinrich succeeded against strong influence of the archbishops of Mainz in his sphere. He was ostracized from Mainz in 1274 continued, but at the latest from 1280 through to its competitors, as he at Fritzlar deferated  an army of the Archbishop of Mainz  and thus ending the further use of Archbishop Send courts in Landgrave cities. Heinrich supported King Rudolf I of Habsburg in his war against Ottokar of Bohemia and helped him conquer Vienna in 1276. He never gave up his claim to the heritage of Brabant  as its full title, "Heinrich, born Duke of Brabant and Lorraine, Landgrave of Hesse" illustrates. In the Limburger war of succession (1283-1289), he supported his nephew Johann I. of Brabant against Geldern and Luxembourg. On 12.05.1292 he gave King Adolf of Nassau  town of Eschwege as fiefs and received it and the imperial castle Boyneburg back immediately as a hereditary fief. He acquired the Imperial Prince, which strengthened his position of power in Hesse considerably. From 1277 he built Cassel out as a residence and built the Castle Marburg  Through skilful diplomacy he came into the possession of, among other Sooden-Allendorf, Kaufungen, Witzenhausen, Immenhausen Grebenstein, Wanfried Staufenberg Trendelburg and Reinhardswald. His wish to partition his lands between his four sons was opposed by his eldest son, but King Adolf sided with him and a first partition took place in 1296, followed by a rearrangement in 1297 after the death of the eldest. After the death of Landgrave Heinrich in 1308 the country was divided when  his sons, Otto I. and Johann  became Landgraves of the   "country of the Lahn" (Marburg) and Lower Hesse (Cassel). Since Johann died already in 1311  the two regions were reunited under Otto. Landgrave Otto I. resided alternately in Marburg and Kassel. Otto had a long feud with the Archbishop of Mainz, Matthias of Buchegg, who disputed with him about the legacy of his in 1311 deceased brother Johann, the part-landgraviate Lower Hesse. In  1324  Mainz won  with the help of troops from the mainzian Amöneburg, the battle in the Lahn hills. In 1327 Mainz was using Trierian troops to get the city of Giessen, but the citizen uprisings enabled Otto, to bring the city quickly back under his control. Only after Otto's death and the defeat of his son Heinirch II,  in Wetzlar and the mediation of King Johann of Bohemia in 1328, the feud was settled. For the city of Kassel there are several documents  obtained in Landgrave Otto  confirmed the city various rights and freedoms. Stack against the right of the city Munden, the adverse consequences for Kassel, Otto went before with determination. When the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg staple rights for half of all the salt, which happened Münden, demanded that Otto was on the same right to goods from Münden, which should happen Kassel. According to some sources  OttoI. trierd to introduce  primogeniture for his sons and the houseof Hesse. He gave his second son Ludwig the castle Grebenstein and his youngest son Hermann the Castle Nordeck as Paragium. Both pledged to celibacy, which Ludwig ignored however. To prevent the division of the country by a second marriage Otto I. is said to  have advised his successors to marry equal.
Otto's. son Heeinrich II. (the Iron)  led the conflict against  electoral Mainz that his father had done and was closely intertwined with the Dernbacher feud . He defeated the the troops of Mainz in 1328 in the Battle of Wetzlar. After his main opponent, the Archbishop Matthias  of Buchegg died in August 1328 Heinrich  compared itself with Mainz, Heinrich and his allies. Since Mainz had many monasteries, churches and cities in the Landgraviate  there where still conflicts that resulted in armed conflicts. These took place in the years 1336 and 1346, which put even the brothers of Heinrich II. on the side of Electoral Mainz. In 1354 it came to a renewed balance between Hesse and Mainz, in which Heinrich II. secured the secular powers of the clergy in the rural county. He gave Kirchhain Hessian as a fiefdom to Mainz, but received for it the main share of the Reinhardswald; later he bought also the part of Paderborner share. In 1329, Heinrich II. conquered the rule Treffurt whose consuming generic Lords were expelled in 1333 and whose reign was from 1336 managed jointly by Hesse, Thuringia and Mainz. Further acquisitions  under Heinrich II.where  held mainly in the east of the County. He acquired in 1346 Spangenberg from the  Lords of Spangenberg and in 1357 he bought a part of the rule Itter. In 1360 he acquired along with Elisabeth von Henneberg Schleusingen (the widow of Count Johann von Henneberg Schleusingen) Schmalkalden and Herrenbreitungen and made with her an  mutual succession agreement.  In 1372, he finally acquired the rule Bilstein. In 1347 Henry defeated the Archbishop of Mainz  Heinrich von Virneburg crucial. at the level between Fritzlar and Gudensberg  The latter was deposed in April 1346 because of his advocacy of Emperor Louis IV. by   Pope Clement VI.,  who supported in  this year the election of Karl IV as on Rex Romanorum, and replaced by Gerlach of Nassau. Heinrich von Virneburg ignored the papal decision and fought until his death in 1353 with Gerlach about the  archbishopric. Landgrave Heinrich supported Gerlach, and after the death of Heinrich of Virneburg Mainz had  due to the defeat of 1347 and Gerlach's promises to Landgrave Heinrich to take his down-and Upper Hesse possessions of the Landgrave as a fief; merely Fritzlar, Amöneburg and Naumburg were individually owned. In 1340 Heinrich II. appointed his only son  Otto II. as co-regent but as he died already in 1366 he had to look for another successor. At first his coose fell on hias grandson Duke Otto of Brunswick, who was also enttitled to inherited according to franish law.  But alreeady in 1367 he denied his grandson the inheritage andopted insteady for his nephew Hermann who was the next in line according to frankish law. After the Hessian Chronicles of Dilich Wilhelm Heinrich decided to do so because Otto led a "dissolute life" and spoke unkindly about his grandfather. There had been heavy fighting between Hesse and the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. About 1370 to Otto of Brunswick sought allies against the Landgrave and teamed up with Count Gottfried VII of Ziegenhain and a large part of the Hessian and parts of Westphalia, Thuringia and Saxon nobility and the knights together for Sterner covenant. 1372 worsened the situation for Heinrich II, when in the  west of the County  the "old covenant of love" under the leadership of Johann of Nassau turned against the Landgrave.Heinrich's mainstay during this time were its cities. When he moved in 1372 against the Sterner alliance the  Sterner war began. From this time Heinrich now  looked for other allies, and closed in 1373 with Friedrich III. the Severe, Landgrave of Thuringia, Margrave of Meissen, an inheritance protection contract and the Emperor wore on county land in fief. Hermann, the scholar was in favor of this in 1375 in Prague where Karl  IV, on the 13.12.1375 confirmed the inheritance fraternization, the feud over Hesse and Thuringia and the feudal entitlement to Meissen. Heinrich II had so reached that Otto of Brunswick had no chance on the heritage of the County. With the Margrave of Meissen and Landgrave of Thuringia, he had the strength to face the Knights federations across the country. Thus Otto probably saw no way to enforce its claims to the inheritance. He responded by it in 1376 - a year before the death of Landgrave - with Heinrich signed a peace treaty. In this contract, Otto renounced his claims in Hesse. Latest with the imperial decision in favor of the Landgrave and the peace treaty broke down the front of the knights against the Landgrave. Furthermore, Heinrich II. reached the fact that his country county was now accepted as a whole by the Emperor, whereby the power of the House of Hesse has been considerably strengthened. Because of the fighting in the past nine years, the langravial coffers were loaded, so Heinrich brought in 1375 a new tax on all imported goods. This aroused the ire of citizens and the nobility in his last year of government and led to the temporary occupation of the castle in Kassel by the local citizens. After the suppression of the riots by Landgrave Hermann II, this was meet with a number of death sentences. Landgrave Heinrich II. died on 06.06.1376 and was succeeded by his nephew Hermann. Already in 1367 after the death of Heinirch II.s son Otto he had been appointed co-regent, who had been  provided for an ecclesiastical career. Since he had only received  minor orders, he was able without much difficulty, to leave the clergy. Because of the Sterner wars the coffers of the state and of the Landgrave had been largely emptied. After his accession  Landgrave Hermann II. therefore decided to levy a new tax on all imported food products, clothing, and metal goods. The new tax will lead to resentment among the nobility and citizens. The deputies of the towns in Hesse and Lower Werra landscape decided on 11 January 1377 to refuse when they met in the Old Town Hall in Kassel, this control under all circumstances. Citizens broke 1378 the special management of the three cities Kassel (Old Town, New Town and Freedom) on and formed a league of cities. The new covenant, the cities joined the nobility and occupied the Landgrave's Castle. Only though mediation of the Landgrave Balthasar of Thuringia in May 1378 it came to a settlement. A number of citizens of Kassel, however, was executed. Nevertheless Landgrave Hermann II. adopted in 1384 a new constitution, in whioch the city of Kassel lost its independence and he made himself the absolute ruler. Citizens therefore turned back to Balthasar of Thuringia. This fonded an alliance with the Duke Otto I of Brunswick-Göttingen and with the Archbishop Adolf of Mainz against Landgrave Herman II. .In 1388 he conquered Eschwege and Sontra. Overall, the allied forces attacked the city of Kassel three times to no avail. A turning point came when the Archbishop Adolf of Mainz Adolf died in 1390 and with its successor Konrad von Weinberg Landgrave Hermann came in 1394 to a compensation, which was inked in Frankfurt peace. In 1400 followed the Friedberger peace with Mainz and Brunswick after Duke Frederick of Brunswick-Lüneburg had been murdered in Fritzlar by  Count Heinrich  VII of Waldeck and his cronies. Landgrave Hermann II was able to expand his territory at this time. In 1399 he took Ulrichstein (by purchase), and soon after the Scots Vogelsberg (also by purchasing) in possession. This was followed in 1402 and 1406 Hauneck Vacha. After his death in 1312 Landgrave Hermann II. was succeeded by his youngest son Ludwig. Under Landgrave Ludwig I.  the clashes  continued, which  the Hessian landgravial house had already under his predecessors with the Archbishops of Mainz to disputed territorial claims. Ludwig I. succeeded to win back  ctheities on the Werra 1419 and 1433  who had  been lost under Landgrave Heinrich II.. Large-scale military conflict broke out after 1425 when the Abbot of Fulda, John I of Merlau, III by the Archbishop  Mainz, Konrad von Dhaun., ericted from his domain and had placed themselves under the protection of Ludwig II. On 23.07.1427 at Kleinenglis few kilometers south of Fritzlar and on 20.08.1427 in Fulda, the Landgrave of Hesse proposed in Main hissing war, the troops of the archbishop under Gottfried von Leiningen devastating. His final victory was from the "Frankfurter peace" 08.12.1427 confirmed. The Mainz power claims were therefore rejected definitively. However he was not able in 1447 to have success against Heiniorch  III. of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen. In 1432 Luidwig II.  acquired the patronage of the Hersfeld Abbey and 1443 about the Corvey Abbey, and from 1437 to 1456, the suzerainty over several countly houses  and dominions, such as Waldeck-Landau (1431), Waldeck, Waldeck (1438), Sayn Wittgenstein (1439), Plesse (1447), lip (1449) Buren (1456) and Rietberg (1456). By far the most important of which was the county Ziegenhain (1437), whose territory had previously separated the two main parts of the County Hesse from another. In 1450 when the house Ziegenhain 1450 with Johann II. became extinct in the male line, he pulled out a fiefdom of this, which is also the county Nidda with single lockAdded where protection and patronage over the diocese of Paderborn as well as the cities of Erfurt and Mühlhausen.  At the end of his reign, Ludwig I. had rounded off the territory of the County significantly, but Hesse was divided after his death
  • Lower Hesse with residence at Kassel went to his son Ludwig
  • Upper Hesse with residence at Marburg/Lahn wen to his son Heinrich. This line became aldready extinct with the death of Heinrich's son Wilhelm III. in 1500.
The two fought until  1470 about the exact demarcation of their mutual dominions and sovereignty, and in 1469 there was even an open war between them. This Hessian civil war ended in May 1470 through mediation of the third brother, the late Archbishop Hermann IV of Cologne
Landgrave Ludwig III. of Lower Hesse argued from 1464 until May 1471 with Fürst Bishop Simon III. of Paderborn in the Hesse-Paderbornsche  feud that  had erupted over
the ownership of the castle Calenberg at Warburg. After a hunt with his brother in the "Süllingswald" soon after the peace agreement with Fürst Bishop Simon Landgrave Ludwig III.  died unexpectedly at the castle Reichenbach. Later writers assumed a poison attack. His older son Wilhelm I. (the older older) renounced in 1493 his inheritance rights and therefore the younger son Wilhelm II. became alone Regent of Lower Hesse. Wilhelm II. was in his early years a good friend of the German King and later Emperor Maximilian, he stood by on several campaigns. 1488 freed the Saxon Duke Albrecht and Wilhelm II. Maximilian. From captivity of the rebel city of Bruges, and 1490 he assisted with 1000 followers Maximilian in his train to Hungary. 1503-1504 Wilhelm II.  was responsible for the enforcement of the eigh in the Palatinate where  of his troops behaved very rudely. After the death in 1500 of his childless cousin, Wilhelm III. who had ruled since 1489 in Marburg on the sub-land county Upper Hesse, Wilhelm II again united the whole country in a single county of Hesse. In addition, he managed the inheritance dispute with the Count of Nassau to the former county Katzenelnbogen once to have fizzled and thus de facto terminate Hessian favor. Already in 1504 Wilhelm II. already fell ill  with the  syphilis as his older brother . 1506 he handed over the reins of government, therefore, actually used by him to a Regency Council. He died from fear of contagion increasingly isolated on 11.07.1509. Because his Philipp was still a minor at the death of his father  the guardianship reign broke out a fierce battle between Wilhelm II.'s widow, Landgravine Anna, née of Mecklenburg  and the stands and in particular the Hessian knighthood. Philip was declared of age  with 13 ½ years  by  Emperor Maximilian I. and  took in  1518 himself the government, but kept his mother and their councils with him. Since 1524 Philip was a follower of the Protestant doctrine and was the champion of the Reformation. In 1526 he held for the purpose of Protestantization his territory from the Homberg Synod. In the same year, the alliance was with Johann of Saxony and other Protestant princes in Torgau covenant.In 1527 he founded the University of Marburg as the first Protestant university in the world and at the same time the associated Gymnasium Philippinum. In June 1528, he joined with the Archbishop of Mainz, Albert of Brandenburg, the Treaty of Hitzkirchen where elecoral Mainz definitively renounced the spiritual jurisdiction over Hesse. 1529 he founded the Hessian Institute Fellows. In the same year there was the Marburg Colloquy between the reformers Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli, of which Philip hoped the agreement of Protestantism. He belonged to the princely representatives of the Protestant minority  at the Diet of Speyer. Philip bvecame in  1531 co-founder of the Smalcald League. 1534 he succeeded by military action in the by Habsburg managed Württemberg, with his victory at the Battle of Lauffen took a decisive turn, return the exiled Duke Ulrich of Württemberg in the country. In Landgrave Philipp 1524 married  Christine of Saxony. While Christine was  still alive Philipp made in 1540 a second morganatic marriage with the Saxon maid of honor Margarethe von der Saale. The Protestant reformers Martin Luther, Philipp Melanchthon and Martin Bucer approved after some hesitation Philip approach - Melanchthon was present even at the wedding at Castle Rotenburg. The announcement of this second marriage led to a serious crisis of the Reformation and brought Philip a politically far-reaching difficulties because bigamy not only contradicted church law, but was also reinforced by secular law with the death penalty. On the goodwill of the Emperor instructed, he offered to Emperor  Karl V to support him against France, England and the Ottoman Empire and thwart the negotiations for an alliance with his Saxon Fbrother-in-law.  The Emperor spoke about the deals, which eventually in the Regensburg agreement resulted from June 1541: Philip promised one hand no alliance with the French king Francis I and other foreign powers to take and the Emperor in the event of a war with France to support military, on the other hand promised it to prevent the intervention of the League of Smalcald in the war for the Duchy of funds and to prevent the ingress of the Duke of Cleves in this Protestant military alliance. To such a war however it came from  1546-47 with the Smalcald War. After the victory of the Emperor would surrender to Philip and was held in prison in the  Netherlands for five years. During this time the country county Hesse was ruled by his eldest son Wilhelm, which Philip had attached a Regency concil , consisting of his wife, Christine, chancellor Heinrich Lersner and the councils Rudolf Schenk zu Schweinsberg, William of shafts and Simon Bing. In his last fifteen years of his life Philipp took care of the amdinistration of Hesse and  promoted the unification of the Protestant parties. In addition, he sought to consolidate after the Smalcald War highly indebted country, including through the introduction of a drink tax. Through the expansion of the tax system, he transformed the country from the medieval County of Hesse state domain for early modern financial state: In addition to the established conventions of the domains to taxes as a new pillar of the state funding. Philip forced especially the introduction of a property tax, which was based on the performance of the taxed. Some of his initiatives and start-ups such as confirmation classes, the Landeswohlfahrtsverband or Althessische knighthood continue to exist to this day.
Landgrave Philipp went through
four testaments (1536, 1557, 1560, 1562), alternating between his desire to maintain the unity of Hesse and introduce primogeniture on one hand, and his wish to treat his children fairly (a particular problem was the treatment of his four sons by his bigamous and unequal marriage to Margarete von der Saale).   The final one, confirmed by the Emperor on 18.11.1562, provided for reciprocal succession rights between the male issues of his sons (excluding females) and mandated the inalienability of any of the lands.  A few elements remained in common (the university of Marburg, hospitals and convents, the court in Marburg, etc)
The brothers confirmed the determinations of the will and regulated on 28.05.1568 in the Ziegenhainer  agreement the division of the country.
  • Wilhelm, the eldest son, received about 1/2 of the lands: Lower Hesse with Cassel, most of Ziegenhain, half of Schmalkalden
    this became the line of Hesse-Cassel, from 1806 Electoral Hesse
  • Ludwig (1537-1604) received 1/4 of the lans:  Upper Hesse with Marburg and Giessen, and the counties of Nidda and Eppstein, he died in 1604 without leaving Issue and Hesse-Marburg was divided between he nephews Moritz of Hesse-Cassel and Ludwig of Hesse-Darmstadt
  • Philipp (1541-83) received 1/8 of the lands: the lower county of Katzenellenbogen with St. Goar and Rheinfels he died in 1583 without heirs and his posessions where divdied among his 3 brothers
  • Georg (1547-96) the remaining 1/8  of the lands: the upper county of Katzenellenbogen around Darmstadt.
    this became the line of Hesse-Darmstadt,
    from 1806 Hesse and by Rhine
  • the son of Margarethe von der Saale  received Bickenbach, Umstadt, Homburg a. d. Höhe, Lisberg, Stormfels, Schotten, Ulrichstein. The onlys survivin son was arrested in 1577, declared legally dead and his posessions distributed between the brothers. 

Landgraviate of Hesse-Cassel

Lowe Hesse with Cassel, most of Ziogenhain and the half of Schmalkalden went to the oldest son Wilhelm and became the Landgraviate of Hesse-Cassel.  Because of the divison Hesse had lost its supremacy in the struggle for Reformation, which went to the House of Orange and the Elector of the Palatine. Wilhelm IV. could but in the following years successfully mediate between the Elector Friedrich IIIof the Palatinate and August of Saxony and thus encourage Protestantism. He was a signatory to the 1552 Treaty of Chambord. Wilhelm increased his territory  after the death of Count Otto VIII. of Hoya (1582), Frederick II of Diepholz (1585) and Georg Ernst von Henneberg (1583). From the possession of the latest he received the particular the hennebergian part  of the city of Schmalkalden, which he made to his secondary residence and where he had the castle Wilhelmsburg, named after him. After the death of his brother Philip of Hesse-Rheinfels , he received the bulk of the former county Katzenelenbogen. In the Merlauer Treaty of 08.09.1583 he agreed with the Archbishop of Mainz, Wolfgang von Dalberg over long simmering border conflicts between the Lanmdgraviate and electoral Mainz, with almost all of the remaining possessions in North Hesse Mainz finally fell to the Hesse-Cassel, who gave up his claims in Eichsfeld Landgrave Wilhelm IV. died in 1592 and was succeeded by his only son Moritz. Landgrave Moritz was fully formed, and his education was oriented in the spirit of Philipp Melanchthon and Martin Bucer. Only through the influence of his two wives,  came to the reformed faith It said that he spoke eight languages​​, was also interested in science and should have taken alchemical experiments. He loved magnificent lifts, jousting and allegories, and let the first independent theater in German-speaking countries, the Ottoneum in Kassel build. He was an expert musician and serious composer, he discovered and promoted Heinrich Schütz. In 1605 Moritz converted to Calvinism. According to the principle Religious Peace of Augsburg had the sovereign the right to enforce a confession of change also on his  subjects. However, the Peace of Augsburg was only closed between Lutherans and Catholics, and its applicability to Reformed was questionable. In any case, Moritz went beyond the scope for interpretation when he introduced the Reformed confession in parts of the country who came in 1604 with the division of the estate of the extinct line of Hesse-Marburg in Hesse-Cassel and excluded for a change of confession by testamentary disposition was . Also illegal as well the forced change of confession to the overall Hessian University of Marburg, which  in 1607 resulted in  the establishment of the Lutheran University of Giessen through Hesse-Darmstadt. In his reign Moritz often acted unhappy and increasingly lost the confidence of the estates. He led by risky actions on the periphery of its territory, such as the disastrous expedition to the Lower Rhine against the Spanish occupation of the Bishopric of Münster 1598/99 or the failed occupation of Koadjutorenstelle of the diocese of Paderborn 1604. From 1604 it came in the wake of the Marburg inheritance dispute to protracted conflicts with Hesse-Darmstadt. Moritz then lost in 1623 on Reichshofrat a process through which he had to give not only the Marburg legacy and parts of Lower Hesse and Schmalkalden and Katzenelenbogen as mortgage costs. His devotion to country foreign consultants in addition poisoned the relationship to the stands. In the Thirty Years' War, in which Hesse was one of the most devastated areas, Moritz brought by its espousal of the Protestant Union and its military commitment to the Danish King Christian IV in opposition to the Emperor. In the early 1620s, the knighthood was no longer willing to bear the high cost for it. Finally brought the invasion ligistischer troops under General Tilly the break, as the representative objects without knowledge of the Landgrave entered into negotiations with the General. Moritz rose on the charge of treason and thus lost the last vestige of trust estates. On 17 .03.1627 he was forced by the country stands to abdicate in favor of his son

Through contract from 12.02.1627 and 01.09.1628 Landgrave Moritz errected a independet principality under the suzerainity of Hesse-Kassel for the son of his second marriageto Juliana of Nassau-Dillenburg. The ruling herein junior lines of the House of Hesse-Cassel be grouped under the umbrella term of Hesse-Rotenburg.
To ensure befitting care of their children, Juliane ran the transfer of income and ownership rights to their children and eventually reached by Landgrave Moritz that their sons got the so called called Rotenburg Quarett. It comprised about a quarter of the total area of Hesse-Kassel, and this size ratio was finally namesake. However, it was determined that the fourth remained under suzerainty of Kassel, and that above all the decision-making powers regarding defense and foreign policy, so the rich legal representation, lay exclusively with the reigning Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel. However, this scheme has led to the time to fight. From 1627-1835 the Rotenburg Quart included one to several, only partially independent principalities within  Hesse-Cassel. They included not only city and department Rotenburg the former county Katzenelenbogen with the fortress Rheinfelsstrasse, the cities and offices Eschwege, Wanfried, Sontra, the town of Witzenhausen, the courts Bilstein and Germerode (both at Witzenhausen), the Hessian-thirds of the rule Treffurt, castle and Office Ludwig Stein and the rule Plesse (north of Göttingen) with the Office of peers. There was also a quarter of the country duty. The territory described community was owned by the descendants of Landgrave Moritz and Juliane  of nassau-Dillenburg and was divided until the introduction of primogeniture in Hesse-Rotenburg repeated among the male offspring 
Following the resignation of Landgrave Moritz in 1627 and the government takeover by his son from his first marriage, Willhelm V., Juliane's sons Hermann and Friedrich received the  areas of Hesse-Rotenburg and Hesse-Eschwege.
Juliane himself moved in 1629 with their other children in their new residence Rotenburg. In the following years, there where more secondary lines:
  • Hesse-Eschwege, 
  • Hesse Rhine-rock (younger line)
  • Hesse-Rhinefels-Rotenburg and
  • Hesse-Wanfried, with Eschwege and from 1711 Hessen-Rhinfels-Rotenburg   
but apart from the main line the only survived for 2 generations. After the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 fell from the refunded to Hesse-Kassel areas and office with St. Goar, St.Goarshausen, Neukatzenelnbogen and the Office Hohenstein Bad Schwalbach to  Hesse-Rotenburg. These were given to the yougest son of Juliane,  Ernst of Hesse-Rhinefels , who had come of age. He etablished his  residence at Rhinefles Castle near St. Goar. After the death of his brother Hermann, who had previously been the heir of the middle brother, Friedrich of Hesse-Eschwege, Ernst also inherited Hesse-Rotenburg. The in 1648 acquired parts of the country were assigned in 1754 to Hesse-Cassel as the price for the recognition of primogeniture in the House of Hesse-Rotenburg. Landgrave Ernst von Hessen-Rhinfels became in 1652 Roman Catholic. As heir to his brothers, he gained the whole "Rotenburg Quart", so the lines of the House of Hesse-Rotenburg in the subsequent period were also Roman Catholic for the first time. After Ernst's death in 1693 his son Wilhelm the Elder of Hesse-Rotenburg,  Landgrave of "Hesse-Rhinfels-Rotenburg", while his second son Landgrave Karl  had founded in 1667 a new branch line "Hesse-Wanfried". In 1711 Karl was succeeded in turn by his sons Wilhelm the Younger of Hesse-Wanfried and Christian of Hesse-Wanfried. Karl was also awarded in 1711 Hesse Rhinefels. The Rhinfelfels Castle  he received in 1718, the crew of rights, however, were finally ceded to Hesse-Kassel, by Christian in 1735. Christian was the last male representative of the sidelines Hesse-Wanfried, and its territories were due to the trusts back after his death to Hesse-Rotenburg
After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the remains of Rhinefels/Katzenelenbogen were lost to Prussia. As compensation the gotz Corvey in Westphalia and the rule Ratibor in Silesia
After the death of the last landgrave Victor Amadeus in 1834 according to House contract his to the Roteburg Quartett belonging posession should fall back to the now Electorate of Hesse.  Immediately after the death of Landgrave Victor Amadeus, his widow was to be surprising to be pregnant. Elector Wilhelm II was prompted to make controlling access to the residence of the widowed Landgravine in the Royal Palace to Rotenburg of own troops for the duration of pregnancy in order to prevent the smuggling of an infant can in this situation. After the expiration of the period occurred in the biological Rotenburg actually no birth, so that the reversion of the fourth could be carried out to Hesse-Cassel with a few months delay 

After Landgrave Moritz had abdicated he was succeeded by his oldest son who became Landgrave Wilhelm V. One of his first measures was to recognize the judgment of the Reiochshofrat in the Marburg heritage dipute. That was required to keep his country economically afloat. Politically he never renounced his claim. During the Thirty Years War, Wilhelm V. allied with King Gustav Adolph of Sweden - both were great-grandson of Philip of Hesse - and assumed him his entire army. To the Allies further included the Dukes Wilhelm and Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar and August the Younger of Brunswick. Wilhelm himself took part as a commander in the war, and managed in June 1631 to drive away the imperial forces under Aldringer and Fugger from  Hesse. On 22.08.1631 Tilly threatened to invade again in Hesse, which did not succeed against the coalition with the Swedish king. After Gustav Adolph wone the battle aginst Tilly at Breitenfeld  Wilhelm V. got in the Treaty he concluded on 22.08.1631 with the swedish King, as evidenced donation of Gustav Adolf the pins Fulda, Hersfeld, Paderborn and Corvey Abbey, where Hesse held old gentlemen protection, as well as the yet to be conquered Diocese of Münster. Wilhelm V. ould now go on the offensive and in August the city Hersfeld and Fritzlar (who belonged to electoralMainz) in September. In the area ofthe imperial pen  Fulda Empire he ruled from 1632 to 1634 as the "Fürstof Buchen". The Landgrave and Gustav Adolf moved in November 1631 together against Frankfurt. So that  the position of the Landgrave George II of Hesse-Darmstadt, who was allied with the Emperor, was treatened to a a high level, and he immediately went negotations wth the the King of Sweden. Surprisingly for Wilhelm V. the King decreased the Landgrave of Hesse-Dam,rstadt only the fortress Rüsselsheim but gave him al of Uppehesse. However as Gustav Adolph fell at the battle of Lutzen in 1632 the political coaltition in which Hesse-Cassel was gainingh strength, bruoke uop and the catholic League gained new strength. When in  1635 the Emperor  in the Treaty of Prague, a large number of German princes united to expel foreign powers from Germany, Landgrave Wilhelm V. did not participate in what him  isolated. Rather, he concluded an alliance with France. The Emperor then carried the war to Lower Hesse. The monastery of Fulda was restituted. Wilhelm V. lost his possessions in Westphalia and was the debt burden of 2.5 million guilders, which had caused some of his father, no longer clean. He was declared the enemy of the Empire, and Landgrave Georg II.  of Hesse-Darmstadt was appointed administrator in northern Hesse. 1637 Upper Hesse was occupied by the Emperor in an approved punitive action by the imperial army. For the population began with the "Croats year" terrible horrors of war and devastation. 18 Hessian cities went up in flames, 47 castles and 100 villages were destroyed. Only Cassel itself was spared. However, there broke out the plague, which killed 1440 people to the victim. Wilhelm V. had to flee with his family. Previously, it was yet succeeded him in 1636, the area occupied by Swedish troops and imperial troops besieged fortress of Hanau to rid the headquarters of his wife's family. He died in 1537 and his widow Amalie Elisabeth, ´nee Countess of Hanau-Lichtenberg became the guardian of their son Wilhelm VI. who was still a minor. During her regenc in 1645 during the Thirty Years War it came tothe so called Hesse War a dispute with the Landgraviate Hesse-Darmstadt because of Marburg and Upper Hesse. it ended in 1648 with the victoriy of Hesse-Cassel. In 1650 Wilhelm VI. was declared of age. After the war, Wilhelm VI cared  mainly about  expansion of the universities of Marburg and Rinteln   and  the creation of new higher educational institutions. With the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, there was a balance with Landgrave George II of Hesse-Darmstadt who received the territory ariound Gießen and the Hessian area around Biedenkopf. Shortly before his death, in 1658, Wilhelm VI joined the rhine alliace. After his death in 1773 hisoldest son succeeded as Landgrave Wilhelm. VII.m As he was not of age his mother, Landgravine Hedwig Sophie, nee Princess of Brandeburg acted guardian. The young Landgrave Wilhelm VII., died in 1670 at a fiever during a stay in Paris. He had been engaged to Princess Amlia of Curland. New Landgrave became his brother Karl who was until 1675 under the guardianship of his mother. During the  reign of Landgrave Karl  the countrycould overcome the consequences of the Thirty Years War more quickly than in other regions of the German Empire. He pushed for the reconstruction of a large army and put it among others in the War of Spanish Succession in. He lent his soldiers, as well as other princes of his time, against Subsidienmoney in foreign service. This system improved the finances, but not the prosperity of the country and brought the brilliant court itself in foreign family connections. Even before the Edict of Fontainebleau in October 1685 Karl adopted on 18.04.1685, the "Freedom Concession" which assured the exiled Huguenots from France and the Waldensians free settlement and its own churches and schools. In the following years about 4000 of the protestants who where persecuted in their homeland came to Northern Hesse  and were  for example located in Kassel OberneustadtFollowing the ideas of mercantilism in 1679, he founded the Messinghof, one of the first metal-processing plants in Hesse. In 1699 he founded Sieburg (since 1717 Karlshafen) and settled there the Waldenses and Huguenots. The construction of the Landgrave Karl-channel from  the Diemel to Kassel (and beyond), he tried to circumvent then existing customs borders, but the building was soon discontinued after a few kilometers.
In 1665 Landgrave Karl gave his younger brother Philip  a small part of the country as Paragium, called Hesse-Philippsthal, named after the place Philippsthal (formerly Cross Castle) in Vacha on the Werra. 


The line was founded in 1685 by Philip, the third son of the Landgrave Wilhelm VI. of Hesse-Kassel and Princess Hedwig Sophia of Brandenburg . The name of the house refers to the castle Philipsthalbuilt from 1685 in Kreuzberg (today Philippsthal) by Philip I on the remains of the previously belonging to the pin Hersfeld in 1568 and repealed Benedictine monastery Kreuzberg. The family was therefore sometimes called after the former place names Hesse-Kreuzberg or Hesse-Kreuzburg. This line became extinct in 1925 when the last Landgrave karl of Hesse-Philippsthal died witohout male issue.

This junior line of the line Hesse-Philippsthal was founded in  1721 by Wilhelm, the second son of Landgrave Philipp I. of Hesse-Philippsthal. It is  named after its headquarters, the place Barchfeld in Schmalkalden  which was until 01.07.1944 a hessian Schalkalden exclave in today's Thuringia.
The three-winged Baroque Palace of the Landgraves of Hesse-Philippstha- Barchfeld, Wilhelmsburg Castle, from which they ruled their little Mediat country was built in 1690-1732 on the site of a previously demolished boyneburgischen castle.
After the Electorate of Hesse was annexed along with his Mediat countrys in  1866 by Prussia, the two side lines Hesse-Philippsthal and Hesse-Philipp-Barchfeld   received an annual pension of 300,000 marks and the castles of Rotenburg and Schönfeld (Kassel)
from the Hessian Fideikommiss.
Today the family is based in Herleshausen, where she managed their inherited from the defunct Hessen-Philippsthal posessions.

The present head of this line is Prince and Landgrave Wilhelm of Hesse who is married to Oda-Mathjilde von Garmissen. They have 2 sons the Princes and Landgraves Wilhelm and Otto.

The oldest son and heir of Landgrave Karl,  Prince Friedrich married in 1715 as his second wife (he he had been married to Princess Luise of Prussia who died after 5 years of marriage) Princess Ulrikca Eleonora of Sweden, the sister and heiress of the unmarried swedish King Karl XII.. After the death of Karl XII. in 1718 she became Queen of Sweden but on 29.02.1720 she abdicated in favour of her husband who was crowned as King Fredrik I. of Sweden on 03.05.1720. Therefore after the death of landgrave Karl in 1730 Friedrich became Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, but his younger brother Wilhekm became Stadtholder in Hesse. In 1731 Landgrave Fredrich visited as swedish King his homecountry and confirmed the Stathdoldership of his brother. Although Friedrich entertained in Stockholm a chancellery concerning hessian matters, Wilhelm reigned in Hesse completely unlimited. Under Wilhelm's reign the Hessian army was increased to 24,000 men. After the death of his brother Friedrich Wilhelm succeeded him in 1751 officially as Landgrave Wilhelm VIII. Already in 1736, he inherited the county of Hanau, Hanau after the last Count Johann Reinhard III, had had died and his brother Friedrich had renounced on this heritage. He reigned there in his own name. In 1754 he appropriated the county to his grandson Wilhelm and ordered his mother as  guardian.
Wilhelm was regarded as a personal friend of both the Prussian King Friedrich II.  as well as the brief Bavarian Emperor Charles VII. With Emperor Charles VII, he maide in 1742 in Frankfurt a contract in which the Wilhelm appropiated the Emperor 3.000 soldiers for the War of the Austrian Succession, while the Emperor took over the country and guarantee the Hessian William the Electorate was promised. His reign as Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel was also marked by the Seven Years' War, in which Wilhelm paricipated at the side of Prussia and Britain and its main actor, he was in the western theater of war. This meant that the country county became an important battlefield and thereby suffered severe devastation. Among other things, the French occupied several times Cassel. Of domestic political importance was the only in 1754 announced conmvertion of his son, the future Landgrave Frederick II, to Catholicism in 1749. To prevent that Friedrich could do as the reigning sovereign of its right to determine the use of state religion, met Wilhelm VIII and the Hessian estates in 1754, a number of regulations whose central element was the Assekurationsakte. This stipulated that there be no public Catholic worship, and that Catholics were allowed to occupy any state administrative offices. In addition, the county of Hanau was still kept separate from the county and bypassing his son Friedrich, it was direct inherited by Friedrich's  son, the future Landgrave Wilhelm IX. . With these provisions, Prince Friedrich had to agree to not be totally excluded from the succession. Under Wilhelm VIII in 1753, the foundation stone for the castle Wilhelmsburg was laid. He was also the founder of the Kassel Art Gallery. After his death in 1750 he was finally succeeded by his only son Friedrich. Landgrave Friedrich had in 1740 married Princess mary of Great Britain, a daughter of King George II.  In February 1749 during a visit of the Elecotr and prince Bishop Clemens August, Freidrich secretly converte to the catholic faith. After this his wife Mary and her sons Wilhelm, Karl  and Friedrich separated from him. His father told him in the Hessian Assecurations Order from 1754 to let the Protestant religion in Hesse untouched, and gave Mary and the children of the county of Hanau coins mountain, which was separated from Hesse-Kassel. Friedrich never saw his wife and children again until 1782. After the death of the Landgravine Mary, he married in 1773 in the Princess Philippine of Brandenburg-Schwedt, a niece of the prussian King Friedrich II.  During the Seven Years War, Friedrich joined the side of Prussia. He was appointed General and Vice Governor of Wesel. He received the Infantry Regiment 48, but until 1757 the 45th Infantry Regiment In the same year he became Governor of Wesel and a mamber of the Black Eagle Order. He fought in the Allied army in Moravia and Silesia to the end of the war. In March 1759, he was promoted to General of Infantry. After becoming reigning landgrave in 1760 he and made several unsuccessful attempts to reunite  the county of Hanau  with Hesse-Cassel, but failed due to the resistance of Britain and the Protestant Estates. On 14 May 1760 he was appointed Field Marshal. After the war, a building boom began in Cassel which the Landgrave  supported and promoted. He moved industry and manufacturers to Hesse and  brought artists and scholars to cassel. The first freely accessible museum of mainland Europe, the Fridericianum was  created in 1779. In 1777 Friedrich the Academy of Arts. Funding for this project came from in the 18th Century common rental of soldiers to other countries, primarily to the Holy Roman Emperor, France and the UK.Alerady his father sent in 1756 Hesse-cassel troops to Britain to protect the island from a feared French attackHowever, they did not have to be used and fought in the Seven Years War in West Germany. England needed troops for the Revolutionary War and Frederick and other German princes presented King George III. about 20,000 troops for the war in America. For this closed Minister Frederick von Schlieffen with England contracts that made Frederick one of the richest Princes of Europe.
From his first marrige Landgrave Friedrich II. had 3 sons
  • Wilhelm, who succeeded him as Landgrave
  • Karl, he was first Statholder in Norway until in 1767 he became Stadtholder of the danish royal Duchies Schleswig and Holstein. On 28.01.1805 he was given the Title Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel. He was married to Princess Louise of Denmark, a daughter of King Frederik V
    • Marie, she married her first cousin King Frederik VI. of Denmark and Norway 
    • Friedrich, who became as sucessor of his father Stadtholder in Schleswig and Holstein
    • Juliane, protestant abbess of the monasters Itzehoe
    • Christian
    • Luise Karoline, married to Duke Wilhelm of Schleswig-Hosltein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
  • Friedrich III. after his older brother Wilhelm had became Elector in 1803 he granted his him the Title of Landgrave. he was trhe ancestor of the so called Rumpenheim line. He was married to Princess Karoline Polyxene of Nassau-Usingen
    • Wilhelm,after the death of his father in 1837 he became Landgrave and inherited Rumpenheim Castle According the provisions of his father the startd the Rumphenheimer Family day. where the entire Family came toegether every 2 years. This was therefore important because under his descendatrns where a lot of the european monarchs of the 19th and 20th Century. He was married to Princess Louise Charlotte of Denmark
      • Marie, married to Prince Friedrich of Anhalt-Dessau
      • Louise, married to Pricne Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg who in 1863 became King Christian IX. of Denmark
      • Friedrich Wilhelm, who succeeded his second cosuin, Elector Friedrich Wilhelm as Head of the electoral House
      • Auguste, married to Baron Friedrich of Blixen-Finecke.
    • Friedrich Wilhelm, Governeur of Luxembourg
    • Georg Karl, Gouverneur of Magdeburg and prussian General
    • Luise, married to Count Georg von der Decken
    • Marie, married to Grand Duke Georg of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
    •  Augusta, married to Prince Adolpus of Great Britain, Duke of Cambridge 
Iin 1785 Landgrave Friedrich II. died and his oldest son Wilhelm who had already reigned the County Hana.Münzenberg since 1760. This county had fallen to hesse-Cassel after the death of the last Count of the House Hanau Johann Reinhard  III.. In the hessian Assecurations Order from 1754 separated from the mainlands and Wilhelm inherited direct from his grandfather. The new Landgrave Wilhelm IX.  a regent,  who throughout his life remained rooted to the standards of the "absolutism" of the Ancien Régime - in his politics, in his "mistresses" and his controversial military trade, which was very successful in business and was operated by other Covers Tern. Wilhelm IX. was one of the richest German princes of his time, and he succeeded with the help of the Frankfurt banker Mayer Amschel Rothschild to save this property also on the Napoleonic period of time. 

Electorate of Hesse 

Simultaneously with the on 1803 completed Reichsdeputationshauptschluss and the secularization of ecclesiastical rule the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel was raised to an Elector  of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation and Landgrave Wilhelm IX. became Elector Wilhelm I. . But the Electorate was meaningless as to the  of the Holy Roman Empire ended in 1806. The Reichsdeputationshauptschluss brought the electorate also territorial gain. These included the former offices fuldischen Salmuenster, Ulmbach, Herolz and Romsthal and kurmainzischen villages Großkrotzenburg and Großauheim. The still formally existing mortgage shank of the empire of the city of Gelnhausen was abandoned in favor of the electorate. The Landgeraviate had  factially owned the citiy already since the inheritance of  Hanauf in 1736. 1806 presented the Counts of Degenfeld the court Ramholz  the territorial sovereignty of the Electorate of Hesse. Elector Wilhelm I.  joined not the Confederation of the Rhine which was dominated by Napoleon I., and tried to remain neutral. Then Napoleon I. occupied the the country on 01.11.1806. The Elctor flow just in time and went into exile first at Holstein and later in prague. After the Peace of Tilsit in 1807, Napoleon I. gave by Decree of 18.08.1807 the mainlands of Hesse-Cassel as Kingdom of Westphalia to his brother Jerôme. The southern parts of the Country, thus the county of Hanau-Münzenberg came in 18ß06 under french military administration and from 1810-1813 to the Grand Duchy Frankfurt. In 1813 Hesse-Cassel was restituted, and Wilhelm I. came on 21.11.1813 back in his town of residence. At the Congress of Vienna, he tried in vain to get admitted by payment of substantial bribes, named after the Germanic tribe name the Hesse title of "king of the Chatti," but retained the title "Elector", with the personal title of "Royal Highness". In 1815 Electoral hesse also got the territory of the former prince bishop Fulda. Wilhelm I. I took a restorative course began the reforms that had taken place during the period of his exile, the return (such as the powdered wigs were reintroduced in military and yard), and alienated with this policy, the rising bourgeoisie. In Cassel, he had to perform extensive enhancements in the mountain park Wilhelmshle  and the Castle Löwensburg who   served as a residence for his mistress, Caroline of Schlotheim, later Countess Hessenstein. Set of attack taken against him was the in  1817 starte bulding of  a new  monumental new palace, the so-called "Chattenburg", on the site of the in 1811 by fire  destroyed and in 1816 demolished Landgrevly Castle. After his death the building procejt was stopped. 
Elector Wilhelm I. was married to Princess Wilhelmine Karoline of Denmark, a daughter fo King Frederik V. The had the following children
  • Marie Frederike, married to Fürst Alexix of Anhalt-Bernburg. The marriage was later divorced. 
  • Karoline Amalie, married to Duke August of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
  • Friedrich, who died young
  • Wilhelm, who succeeded his father as Elector
Elector Wilhelm I.  died in 1821 and was succeeded by his only surviving son who be became Elector Wilhelm II. He  ruled as an autocrat absolutist without the participation of the Estates. His first acts promised even progress. So he reduced the strength of the Hessian army of 20,000 men to the size of his country rather reasonable number of 7,000, but branched off the savings thus achieved partly for his personal purposes. He also had, on 29 .06.1821 reformed the state administration on the Prussian model, in which the country is divided into four provinces and the judiciary was separated from the administration. The former offices were merged into larger circles, and the case at first instance was spun off into the new judicial offices that were responsible for the previously existing districts generally. Otherwise, he pursued a policy that the welfare of his country and its population was not beneficial in their conservatism, their shortsightedness and their arbitrariness. He has long been one of the most ardent supporters of the persecuted of the small German states "triad" policy between Austria and Prussia only when the Fürst Metterncih  in the fall of 1823 made it clear, that this attitude was in the way of an Austrian agreement to purchase the Moravian goods for his lover ihe let this policy go. Prussia, too, he understood not only by his behavior towards his wife, but also by its policy to provoke by the Prussian efforts to establish a German customs union resisted stubbornly. After the Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine and Prussia had established in February 1828 the Prussian-Hessian Customs Union, he joined in September 1828 in Cassel as a countermeasure to the Kingdom of Saxony, the Kingdom of Hanover, the duchy of Nassau, the Free City of Frankfurt and 13 other north- and medium-small states of Germany the Treaty establishing the to 1834 limited  Central German trade association, with which the connection of other states should be prevented to the Prussian-intestinal urban system.  This endeavor was supported by Great Britain and Austria, where it also involves went to limit the Prussian influence. However, the club was a pretty bad design, because neither common customs tariffs were introduced, nor created a single territory for domestic trade. Only effective measure was the introduction of a transit tax on goods into Prussian-intestinal urban area. The drawbacks of this Agreement resulted in 27.03.1830 on the conclusion of Einbeck contract with Hanover, Oldenburg and Brunswick, the basis of the later North German Tax Association, a likewise the general Zollverein obstructive action. These steps were severely damaging to trade and economic Hesse-Kassel. It came in many places famines and riots and at the borders to often violent disputes over illicit trade, smuggling and black market. Because of this the Revolution in 1830 broke out in Electoral Hesse with Because of this the Revolution in 1830 broke out in elecoral Hesse  particular vehemence. First, however, there was almost abruptly to an at least temporary balance between Wilhelm II. and his son, and between Elector and people. In July 1830 Wilhelm II. traveled to Vienna in order to gain the rank of imperial Princess for his mistress. However because Metternich went out of his way he returned empty-handed to his lover back to Carlsbad. There he became seriously ill. Hereditary Prince Friedrich Wilhelm hastened to the bedside and reconciled with his father. On 06.09. riots broke out in Cassel, which extended to other Hessian towns and rural regions. On 12.09.1830  father and son came together back to Cassel. On 15.09.1830 Wilhelm II received  under massive pressure from the street, a delegation led by Mayor Karl Schomburg, consisting of the Cassel City Council and some deputies of the city council. They presented him with a petition in which they asked to convene the Estates having regard to the plight of the country. The Elector agreed to the convening and the drafting of a constitution. The convocation took place on 19.09., and after the not yet represented in the Estates parts of the country as the former county of Hanau were sending deputies, the parliament met on 16.10. together. The text drafted by him electorral hessian  Constitution of 1831 was adopted on .05.01. and announced on 08.01.1831. It was considered a most liberal within the German Confederation and even as the most advanced in Europe - with a unicameral parliament and the possibility of a ministerial charge, a precursor of parliamentary accountability of Ministers appointed by the monarch. Wilhelm II, however, appreciated, after he had given the constitutional question, the location was wrong about his position in the public eye. He allowed the Countess Lessonitz to return to Cassel. Their arrival was in the middle of public rejoicing over the new constitution, and on 11.01 there where again riots in which departure was loudly demanded. The Countess then left  in a hurry, and the Elector together with his court, followed in March to Hanau, where he took residence in the castle Philippsruhe and Wilhelmsbad outside Hanau. Since proved to be technically difficult in the former communication options a Governance of Hanau (the minister had stayed in Kassel), the elector transferred on 15.09.1831 for the duration of his absence from the capital, his son Friedrich Wilhelm co-regent with the the government. Since he never returned to Kassel, this was actually an abdication. 
Elector Wilhelm II. had in 1797 married princess Auguste of Prussia,. a daughter of King Friedrich Wilhelm II.  This marriage had deleoped politically. The two got along poorly. This went up to physical altercations. Soon after the birth of the last daughter of the marriage existed only on paper. Since 1815, the two lived also formally separated: They made a first separation undisclosed contract. For the next ten years, the two have feuded in Cassel. In 1813 Wilhelm II. started a relationship with Emilie Ortlöp who soon became his mistress. In 1821 he gave her the Title Countess of Reichenbach and after he had bought for her and her children the estates Lessonoitu, Bisenze and Lower Moschtienitz. The had together 8. children. After the death of the Electress Augste in 1841 he married her five months later. After her death in 1843 he made a third marriage with Karoline von Belerpesch who was given the Title Countess of Bergen.This last marriage was without descendants. . 
children from his first marriage:
  • Caroline
  • Friedrich Wilhelm who succeeded his father as Elector
  • Marie, married to Duke Bernhard II. of Saxe-Meiningen
He had also several children from his relationship and later marriage to Emilie Ortlöpp. This descendants who had the titel Count/Countess of Reichbach-Lessonitz. From the 5 aughters and 3 sons only Count Wilhelm married but he had only 2 daughters but no son to continue the name. 
After Elector Wilhelm II. had let Cassel his only surving son son from his first marriage Friedrich wilhelm became the Prince Regent in 1831. Since he had become Regent he tried to remove after the stadards of the time very liberal  constitution of 183. As regent but he did not dare to touch the Constitution legally, rather pursued an anti-liberal, monarchist legitimist policies that ran counter to the spirit of the Constitution. After he succeeded his father as Elector in 1847 he also went on the offensive against the Constitution of 1831. He invoked the reactionary Louis Hassenpflug as chief minister. This was the conflict with the stands - in particular the approval of taxes - as far escalate that the government was unable to act. As the reigning on emergency decrees failed because these alleged unconstitutionality neither administrative nor the courts and were failing even recognized the military, he prompted the intervention of the German Confederation: Bavarian and Austrian troops  occupied the country and forced quartering over the obedience of administration and courts. The measures culminated in the Electorate of Hesse that was imposed by the German Confederation in 1851 a new, much less liberal constitution. Only in 1862 the old constitution was reinstated due to external pressure. This attitude made ​​him hated by his own people. Friedrich Wilhelm was captured at the Prussian occupation of Cassel in the Austro-Prussian War in 1866 in his residence and on 23 June brought as a prisoner of state to Stettin. After the Peace of Prague and the final annexation by Prussia, a contract was made between on 17.09.1866 between Hesse and the Elector in which Friedrich Wilhelm, but definitely without sacrificing its sovereignty, gave him financial compensation  exchange to be relived from the duties towards his subjects. The Austria-oriented policies of the Elector and his extreme unpopularity with his subjects led to the annexation by Prussia in the Electorate of Hesse generally welcomed and the Bohemian-Austrian exile vanished former ruler was hardly missed. Elector Friedrich Wilhelm levied then on his Estates in Bohmeia and his Palais in Prague.
Fürst Philipp of Hanau
and zu Horowitz
During his studies in Bonn he meet Gertrude Lehmann, née Falkenstein, the wife of a prussian Leutnant and fallen in love with her. After she was divcorec from her first husband he married her in 1831. After he had become Regent he raised her to the rank of a Countess of Schaumburg and in 1853 he created her Fürstin of Hanau and zu Horowitz. They had 9 children. After his death the inherited his Palais in prague and his bohemians Estate and the private forstune of Friedrich Wilhelm. The present Head of the Family is Philipp. 6. Fürst of Hanau and zu Horowwitz who is married and has 2 sons and a daughter. 

After the death of Elector Friedrich Wilhelm in 1875 his second cousin Friedrich Wilhelm from the Rumpenheim line became the head of the House and assumed as this the Title Landgrave of Hesse. As he had been born in Copenhagen he spent his early youth and childhood in Denmark. After studies in Boon he pursued a military career. In 12844 he married at St. petersburg the 18 years old Grand Duchess Alexandra Nikolievna of Russia, the youngest daughter of Emperor Nikolaus I. A few month later on 10.08. of the same year, the potential heir Wilhelm was born three months too early. On the same day the child died and  also the mother, who suffered from tuberculosis. Around 1850 he was as the only male descendant of Landgrave Wilhelm (he only had five sisters)  for the European royal houses an interesting marriage candidate, because due to family circumstances, he had at this time the two options,
  • to became King iof Denmark after the death of the childless danish King Frederik VII
  • to became Elector of Hesse, as Elector Friedrich Wilhelm remained wthout legitimate Issue
At the end both options where not realized. In the wake of the escalating conflict between Prussia and Denmark, Schleswig-Holstein to the bone of contention, which peaked in 1864 Prussian-Danish War, renounced Friedrich Wilhelm of Hesse-Kassel in 1851 to the Danish throne in favor of his sister Louise, whose husband Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg was determined in 1853 as the successor of King Frederick VII. The Electorate completed by the political situations of self: Hesse-Cassel was annexed by Prussia in 1866, and the last Elector Friedrich Wilhelm I left the country in exile. Despite his marriage with a Prussian had Friedrich Wilhelm of Hesse-Kassel in 1866 to move Otto von Bismarck suggestion that his uncle to abdicate, not bowed, on the other hand he had Prussia oppose any serious military resistance. At the end of the annexation took place, and the Landgrave renounced all rights to the electoral dignity in the way of a compensation contract.
In 1853 landgrave Freidrich wilhelm had married as his second wife Priness Anna of Prussia, a daughter of Prince Carl of Prussia.  
They had 6 children:
  • Friedrich Wilhelm who succeeded his father as Head of the Elctoral House
  • Elisbeth, marreid to Hereditary Prince Leopold of Anhalt
  • Alexander Friedrich, who became Head of the House, after the early death of his brother Friedrich Wilhelm
  • Friedrich Karl, who became after the renunciation of his brother Alexander Frie3drich head of the House
  • Sibylle Margarethe, married to Baron FReidrich of Vincke.
Landgrave Friedrich Wilhelm died in 1884 and his oldest son Friedrich Wilhelm became head of the electoral House. He died on 14 October 1888 on a trip from Batavia to Singapore by a fall overboard. As he was childless he was succeeded by his younger brother Alexander Friedrich. Landgrave Alexander Freidfrich renouncd his rights as head iof the Electoral house on 15.03.1925. 10 days later he married the not equal Baroness Gisela stockhorner of Starein-

After the renunciation of Landgrave Alexander Fredrich the 3 of the brothers, Friedrich Karl became the head of the House. He had been in Ocotber 1918 elcted King of Finnland by the finish Parliament. But after the defeat of the german Empire in the First World War and the abidcation of Emperor Wilhelm II. and the otgher german Kings and Princes this no longer seemed tobe acceptable and so Friedrich karl abdicated as King of Finland on 14.12.1918.  He died in 1940 at late sequelances of Inquires from the first World War.
Landgrave Fredrich Karl married in 1889Princess Margarethe of Prussia, youngest daughter of Emperor Friedrich III. and sister of Emperor Wilhelm II. 
They had the following children
  • Friedrich Wilhelm, fell 1916 in Romania
  • Maximilian, fell 1914 in Belgium
  • Philipp, succeeded his father as Head of the House
  • Wolfgang, married to Princess Marie Alexandra of Baden
  • Richard
  • Cristoph, married to Princess Sophie of Greece and Denmark
    • Christina, married from 1856-1962 to Prince Andrey of Yugoslavia, later she married Robert van Eyck
    • Dorothea, married to Prince Friedrich zu Windisch-Graetz
    • Karl, married to Countess Yvonne Szapáry of Muraszombath
      • Christoph
      • Irina, married to Count Alexander of Schönburg-Glauchau
    • Rainer
    • Clarissa, married to Jean Claude Derrien
In 1940 Landgrave friedrich karl's third, but oldest surviving son succeeded him as new Head of the House  Already before the  establishment of the Nazi state he was an active Nazi. He joined in 1930 the NSDAP  and 1931  in the SA, where he was group leader With his membership he made others for making the Nazi party in aristocratic circles "socially acceptable". After the National Socialists took power, he was appointed by his longtime friend  Hermann Goering to the top presidents of the province of Hesse-Nassau in 1933. As a son-in-law of the Italian king, the Nazis used it to mediate contacts with Benito Mussolini, who was initially reluctant to the Nazi regime. In the 1930s, he held various diplomatic missions to Italy, passing official diplomatic channels. Since 30.01.1939 he was  owner of the Golden Party Badge of the NSDAP. Connected him with Hitler common interests in art and architecture. He arranged the purchase of many important works of art of the great museum that Hitler planned in Linz. 1941 cooled off relations between Philip and Hitler. Philip and his wife came as special prisoners in concentration camps, as his father-in-law  had Mussolini arrested in July 1943. Mafalda died in 1944 after an air attack on the Buchenwald concentration camp. Landgrave Philip spent the rest of the war in various camps, including Dachau and FlossenbiirgBecause of its prominent role in the Nazi regime he came in Allied custody from which he was released in 1947.  After his release, he lived alternately in Fasanerie Castle where his collection of antiquities was, and in Italy. After the death of the childless Prince Ludwig of hesse and by Rhine on 30.05.1968 the twosince 1567 separated lines of Hesse where joined again togethr and he became the only Head of the House of Hesse.
In 1925 he had married Princess mafalda f Savoy, a daughter of King Vittorio Emanuele III. of Italy.
Thea had four children:
  • Moritz, who succeeded his father asHead of the House
  • Heinrich
  • Otto
  • Elisabeth, married to Count Friedrich Karl of Oppersdorf

HRH Landgrave Moritz with
his former wife Princess
Tatiana and their grand-
daughter Madeleine
Landgrave Philipp died on 25.10.1980 and was succeeded as the head of the House by his oldest son Moritz. Landgrave Moritz had in 1960 been adopted by the childless Prince Ludwig of Hesse and by Rhine nad his wife Margaret, née Geddes. After the death of Pricness Margaret in 1997 he inherited among others the Castle Wolfsgarten near Frankfurt.
He brought a considerable portion of the family assets of both houses in the Hessian House Foundation and as Chairman of the Foundation directs the management of the historical cultural property. In the with  Napoleon's defeat of the House of Hesse-cassel acquired hunting Castle Adolphseck near  Fulda many valuable exhibits from numerous other castles of the family were collected and exhibited after the Second World War. Also are the 5-star hotels Hessischer Hof in Frankfurt and the Castle Hotel Kronberg, the winery Prince of Hesse in Geisenheim / Rheingau and the castle and stud Panker of Holstein Switzerland asset of the Foundation.  He is regarded as an important art patrons in Hesse and this was in 1999 with the highest honors of the state of Hesse, Georg-August-tin medal awarded. Moritz of Hesse is also committed to the Institute for New Technical form in Darmstadt and promotes the Kronberg Academy.
Landgrave Moritz was from 1864-1974 married to Princess Tatiana zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg
They had four children:
  • Mafalda, married first to Enrico dei Conti Marone Cinzan, second to Carlo Galdo, and third to Ferdinando dei Conti Brachetti-Peretti
  • Donatus, who succeeeded his father as head of the House
  • married to Countess Floria of Fabver Castell. They have 3 children the twins Moritz and Paulina and August
  • Elena
  • Philipp who works as photographer, he is married to Laetitia Bechtolf,.
    • Elena
    • Tito

      HH Princess Mafalda
      TH Prince Philpp and
      Princess Laetitia
TRH Landgrave Donatus and
Landgravine Floria
Landgrave Moritz died on 23.05.2013 after a longer illness at Frankfurt am Main. The funeral took place on 03.06.2013 at Kronberg. New head of the House became his oldest son Donatus. He has studied busines at the University hamburg. He amdinistrated together with his father the hessian House foundation. 
Landgrave Donatus married in 2003 Countess Floria of Faber-Castell
They have three children
  • Princess Paulina
  • Hereditary Prince Moritz
  • Prince August