Saturday, May 25, 2013

german Houses: The Grand Ducal House of Hesse and by Rhine

The Grand Ducal House of Hesse and by Rhine

House of Lorraine-Brabant

After the death of Landgrave Philipp in on 31.03.1567 the Landgraviate of Hesse was divided among his four sons. His fourth son Georg 1/8 part of  part of the lands the upper county of Katzenelnbogen around Darmstadt. Therefore he became Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. He took over the power in Darmstadt on 15.01.1567. Determined Georg began to make out of the farming town of Darmstadt, a  residencen city. The castle was extended and fortified with a moat and bastions. Armory and stables, and a new building for the government agencies where created in the castle. For the princely representation also the extended castle garden  was created north of the castle. 1572-1580 a  farmhouse was rebuld into the hunting Castle Kranichstein. Georg's father was in 1524 converted to the Lutheran doctrine and put this reformation in his country by county. Spiritual subjects such as was demanded of the "true faith". To get to him, under a reign of Georg area-wide education should be introduced, the same should also provide obedience and right and wrong. This school was a prerequisite for confirmation, so that George, a de facto compulsory education introduced in his country. Georg's reign was marked by great zeal, unrelenting rigor and extremely rigid morality. Presumably, therefore, was Hesse-Darmstadt, Hessen participates in contrast to the areas of Georg's brothers, at the first wave of the early modern witch hunts. Under George's reign are shown for witchcraft, including the approximately 11-year-old Wolf Weber and an approximately 16-year-old girl between 1582 and 1590 37 executions.On the other hand Darmstadt experienced  under George's reign not only an economic boom (the population doubled), but also first elements of a social system, such as the establishment of a poorhouse in 1592 and for the information of orphans in the castle from 1594. Landgrave Georg I. died in 1694 and his sons Ludwig, Philipp and Friedrich where in 1597  was enfeoffed with Hesse-Darmstadt by Emperor Rudolf II. 

Hesse Homburg

In 1622 Friedrich the youngest son of Landgrave Georg I.  received city and department Homburg with all high and authority, but without sovereign violence and should his appanage from the revenues of Homburg contest. So the ruler remained legally  the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, such as the oath of service had to be made to him. Darmstadt was, however, obliged to pay 15,000 guilders annually to Homburg, but this was usually not able to. The separation between violence and glorious nation of a mere transfer of parts of the country to an economic use was not (yet) made ​​clearly in the right state of that time. Thus began early attempts Hesse-Homburg, to be independent. 1768 succeeded by a family agreement, the so-called "Vergleichspunktuation" to achieve the abandonment of Hesse-Darmstadt on the sovereignty over Hesse-Homburg. In this contract, the little country was indeed a far-reaching internal sovereignty, "Hesse-Darmstadt reserved its only relationship to the emperor and empire, it represented Hesse-Homburg on imperial and district and brought the empire and county taxes for Homburg. Hesse-Homburg was therefore never be rich immediately. Important is Landgrave Friedrich II, the Prince of Homburg "with the silver legs." Swedish and Brandenburg-General, who introduced a mercantilist economic policies and targeted development projects with its experience gained in Brandenburg services This included the establishment of Huguenot colonists in Friedrichsdorf. The economic boom is documtned in the early Baroque palace Homburg.
From 1648 to 1681, there was a junior line Hesse-Bingenheim.

At the end
of the Old Empire Hesse-Homburg consisted of the villages of  Dillingen, Dornholzhausen, Espa, Friedrichsdorf, Gonzenheim, Homburg, Köppern, Oberstedten, Seulberg and the half Petterweil. A contract of 26.04.1803 was a land swap between Nassau and Hesse-Homburg Usingen agreed, at the site of Nassau Kirdorf fell to Hesse-Homburg and in 1785 acquired Espa village in Nassau.

As the only mediatized Prince  Landgrave Friedrich V received 1815 in the Vienna Federal Act country back. It was still further increased by the chief official Meisenheim am Glan, part of the former French départements Sarre. Meisenheim had twice the surface area of ​​the root rule Homburg (85 km ²). Until  1866, Hesse-Homburg was a sovereign state in the German Confederation, which it joined on 07.07.1817. Thus, the county land was not a founding member of the German Confederation as the only German principality, one sees from the Danish king ruled the Duchy of Schleswig. In 1828, Hesse-Homburg joined the Central German trade association. For the Office Meisenheim the Landgraviate joined to the Prussian customs system in 1830 and 1834 and the German Zollverein. For the office of Homburg was in 1836 after the Hessian customs system and thus also to the German Zollverein.  Contrary to the provisions of Article 13 of the Federal Constitutional Act no constitution was granted in Hesse-Homburg. Only in the context of the March Revolution issued Landgraf Gustav on 06.03.1848, the Constitution of Hesse-Homburg. 1848, a Landtag of Hesse-Homburg was elected, but it should have no significant impact. On 20.04.1852 came the constitution adopted by the Landgrave. In 1866, with Landgrave Ferdinand died, the last male representative of the house, the dynastic line was extinct in the male line, and the country fell back according to agreement as to succession of Hesse-Darmstadt, After the war of 1866 in the peace treaty it was ceaded to Prussia on 03.09.1866.

Shortly after Ludwig took over the sole reign, after he had resigned his brothers financially. In 1600 he acquired from the counts of Ysenburg the office Kelsterbach with Mörfelden and Long, which was promised him after long discussions with the family Ysenburg by the Emperor. After the death of the childless Landgrave Ludwig IV., Ludwig V.  inherited in 1604 half of Hesse-Marburg. Due to the Calvinist Reformation of Landgrave Moritz of Hesse-Cassel, who had inherited the other half of Hesse-Marburg, which contradicted the will of Ludwig IV,. Ludwig V.  raised claims to all of Hesse-Marburg. This resulted during the Thirty Years' War to serious clashes between the Protestant Ludwig V, who still stood on the side of the Emperor, and Moritz, who stood on the side of the Protestants. At the beginning of the Thrity Years War Ludwig V. kept  Hesse-Darmstadt  neutral, but after Christian of Brunswick fall into Upper Hesse in 1621 he allied with the Emperor. As a result of the Battle of Wimpfen in 1622, which was victorious for the Emperor, Ludwig V. received due to his loyalty the entire  Hesse-Marburg which  he militarily occupied and hold until his death. During these clashes in 1622 Ludwig V. was for a short time a  prisoner of the Protestants. At the Diet of Regensburg in 1623 he voted as the only Reformed prince together with the emperor for harsh decrees against the Protestant Union and the Elector of the Palatine. During the siege of Rhinerock Castle in the  Lower County Katzenelenbogen which he was also assured Ludwig V. died 49 years old in 1626 and his oldest son Georg followed him as Landgrave Georg II. During the he Thirty Years War GeorgeII. behavedneutral, although the was loyal to Emperor Ferdinand II.   Nevertheless, the imperial soldiers raged in Hesse-Darmstadt. In 1629 had George II. had to agree to the Edict of Restitution. Unlike most Protestant German princes, the Landgrave had received no alliance with Sweden in 1631. The Treaty of 1631 gave George High to personal negotiations with King Gustav Adolf the fortress Rüsselsheim, which recognized him for his neutrality. Already in 1625, an exploration of Hesse-Cassel began about the heritage of the extinct line of Hesse-Marburg. George had quickly captured all the value attributed to him by the Emperor areas Cassel eventually had to cede in 1627.  Hesse-Cassel, allied with Sweden and France, managed from 1645 reconquest of the territories. George had fled with his family from the horrors of war and pestilence at Castle Lichtenberg and later to Gießen. In the Peace of Münster and Osnabrück George II.  finally lost to him in 1622 by the emperor granted areas of to the Landgravine Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Cassel, for which Georg was compensated with 60,000 thalers. The Hesse war was ended. Hesse-Darmstadt had suffered greatly during the Thirty Years' War. Industry and agriculture were completely prostrate. Georg II. bought on crops and livestock, which he had spread. This enabled him to revive agriculture in the country. 1650, he had successfully escaped asked subjects to return to the country. 1659 George turned away from its imperial friendly policies and joined the Rhenish Confederation, which was directed against the Habsburgs. In his will, he advised his followers a "harmonious co-hold" with Hesse-Cassel. Agfter his death in 1661 he was succeedd by his oldest son Ludwig VI. who had In 1661 been accepted in the Fruitful Society. by Duke Wilhelm IV of Saxe-Weimar. Ludwig VI.  was awarded as the companion name the fearless and as a motto on heat and frost.  In the  society he became a close friend of the Duke Friedrich I of Saxe-Gotha, whose sister he married in 1666, and was also active as a writer. After the death of his first wife, he wrote numerous poems. He order the Pietist theologian Johann Winckler as a pastor to Homburg and  called Wolfgang Carl Briegel as his Chapel master. Through its purchase of the library of the Johann Michael Moscherosch the palace and court library Darmstadt was actually founded. He earned in 1662 finally the lordhsip   Eberstadt with Frankenstein Castle. At the age of 48 years Landgrave Ludwig VI in1678. In his will, he had his second wife Dorothee Elisabeth, née Princess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg determined as regent and gave her two noble and learned two councils to the side. Hiu successor became his son Ludwig VII. from his first marriage but he died already after a reign of only 18 weeks and 4 days at a dysentery infection. His successor was his half-brother Ernst Ludwig but as he was only 11 years old he was until 1688 under the regeny of his mother Landgravine Dorothee Elisabeth. In 1688 Ernst Ludwig  had to leave the reidence Darmstadt  because of the war with France. It was like Rüsselsheim and Dornsberg occupied by the French. He lived for ten years in Nidda and Gießen. After the death of his mother and his first wife Dorothea Charlotte, née Princess of btrandenburg.Ansbach, Pietism was significantly suppressed and almost all his previous consultants were dismissed. Ernst Ludwig introduced in  Hesse-Darmstadt the absolutist form of government, which was an innovation of the tax system, the establishment of a War Department and expansion of cities, in particular, Darmstadt, for a row. The estates were as good as no longer convened and  tax increases decided over their heads. Ernst Ludwig ve showed itself as a promoter of theater and music, and did himself, like his father and his older sisters and Magdalene Sibylleand  Auguste Magdalene, as a poet of hymns out. He  composed marches and played viola da gamba. Due to the ever increasing burden of debt that was constantly augmented by profligacy, representation efforts building love and magnificence of the Prince , Ernst Ludwig turned to alchemy. The Royal Palace in Darmstadt was newly created by the architect  Louis Remy de la Fosse after a fire 1715. Ernst Ludwig's great passion was hunting in the installation of many new hunting castles like the castle and the hunters Kleudelsburg expressed. The issues were so severe that Ernst Ludwig was forced by the opposition officials and theologians to abandon the Par force hunt in 1718.Landgrave Ernst Ludwig died inn1739 and was succeeded by his oldest son who became Landgrave Ludiwg VIII. During the  Seven Years War Ludwig VIII. stood on the side of the emperor, and reached the military rank of Field Marshal. As a result especially Gießen and Upper Hesse became the scene of armed conflict. In 1764, a meeting between Ludwig VIII. and Emperor Joseph IItook place in a forest near Heusenstamm that counted the Landgrave one of the highlights of his life.
Ludwig VIII. was also regarded as a great friend of the arts. He is considered the patron of the painter Johann Christian Fiedler, Johann Conrad Seekatz and Christian Ludwig von Lowenstern. Ludwig went occasionally to the Darmstadt Opera, where Christoph Graupner and Ernst Christian Hesse performed. Ludwig also composed himself he finally died in the Darmstadt Opera during a performance in his box. His care for his country is evidenced by the establishment of a spinning house in 1742 and a country orphanage in 1746. However, the debt burden increased dramatically under Ludwig VIII. in particular because of its lavish court life and passion for hunting. The formation of an imperial rescheduling Commission could only be avoided by the estates granted funding. The appointment and the work of Friedrich Karl von Moser, who ascended under his son Ludwig  IX to the position of First Minister, had a positive impact on the financial position of the country. Until 1766 Ludwig led for the underage Friedrich IV., together with his mother as regent in Hesse-Homburg. With Hesse-Homburg was Louis since 1747 in the dispute over the dominion Braubach, which could be settled until 1768.
Like his father, Ludwig VIII.  was an avid parf force hunte. This preference made ​​him not only as a hunting Landgraf known, but also led to long absences from his residence. Like his father he led build numerous hunting buildings, including the castle and hunting lodge Dianencastle and the House Griesheim .
In 1717 he had married Countess Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg, only daughter and heiress of Count Reinhard III. of Hanau-Lichtenberg.  In 1736 his son the future  Ludwig IX. inherited the county of Hanau-Lichtenberg, which significantly expanded the territory. In the dispute with Hesse-Cassel about the Office of Babenhausen from the Hanauer inheritance Hesse-Cassel was able to secure the majority of the office after a long legal battle before the Imperial Court.
Landgrave Ludwig VIII. and his wife had the following children:
  • Ludwig IX., who succeeded his father as Landgrave
  • Georg Wilhelm, married to Countess Luise zu Leiningen-Dagsburg-Heidesheimm heiress of the lordships Broich, Oberstein, Aspermont, Burgel and Reipolzkirchen
    • Ludwig Georg Karl, he made a morganatic marrige to Friederike Schmidt, who created baroness of Hessenheim
    • Friedrike, married to Duke Karl of Mecklenburg.-Streltiz, who became in 1815 Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Streltiz
    • Georg Karl
    • Charlotte, married as his second wife to Duke Karl of Mecklenburg.-Streltiz, who became in 1815 Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Streltiz, who was the widwoer of her older sister Friederike
    • Friedrich, he made a morganatic marriage to Karoline Luise Salome Seitz who was creat Frau of Friedrich
    • Luise, she married her cousin Landgrave Ludwig X. of Hesse-Darmstadt, who became later Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine
    • Auguste, married to Duke Maximilian Joseph of Zweibrücken, who became in 1799 Elector and in 1806 King of Bavaria
  • Karoline Luise, married to Margrave  Karl Friedrich of Baden-Durlach, who later became Margave of Baden and finally Grand Duke of Baden
  • Auguste, unmarried
The oldest son of Landgrave Ludwig VIII. the future Ludwig IX. had already after the death of his maternal grandfather regned the county of Hanau-Lichtenberg under the guidance of his father. In 1741, he was declared of age and took over as the Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg, the government. In 1768 he succeeded his father as Ludwig IX. in the government of Hesse-Darmstadt. With his first minister Friedrich Karl von Moser he reformed the state after prussian model. Most previous officials were dismissed and the coursing, which had nearly ruined in Hesse-Darmstadt, agriculture, was abolished. The army was increased and expanded barracks and garrisons.  He had a similar penchant for soldiers and military life like the Prussian "soldier king" Friedrich Wilhelm I, which also led, that he entered the Prussian service, and from  32 years of marriage,he spend 18 years  separated from his wife at his garrison . Since 1733 he performed his career in the Hesse-Darmstadt urban army and was built in 1741 in time to hanau light bergischen Office Lviv scoring Bärenthal / Lorraine first company that the marching orders to Pirmasens received after a short time, which he built a garrison town. Through its military spending, there was soon to financial constraints in the county of Hanau-Lichtenberg. In the War of Austrian Succession in the French service in 1743, he had suffered a defeat in Prague and came in the same year as the head of the regiment Selchow walking in the Prussian service. It was garrisoned in 1750 in Prenzlau and participated in the Silesian campaigns of Friedrich II. of Prussia. His regiment he was back in 1757 so as not to burden the Franco-Austrian alliance. Ludwig's father, an ally of Austria, had intervened against the service of his sons in the Prussian army and the Prussian king called his sons back. In 1764 he came back to imperial Habsburg service, was field marshal lieutenant and received in 1767 the regiment Macquir foot. After the marriage of his daughter with the Russian Tsarevich left Ludwig IX. the imperial military service and in became 1774 Russian Field Marshal. Ludwig IX. is the founder of the city of Pirmasens. The town grew by favoring by the Landgrave and the deployment of an entire garrison there from a village with about 30 houses in a few years to a residence which was granted town rights in 1763 and already 7000 inhabitants in 1789 numbered.
LandgraveLudwig IX. married in 1741 Countess Paltine Henriette Karoline of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld.  She was also known as the Great Landgravine,  a name who had been given to her by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in his work and fiction. They maintained friendly relations with various scholars of their time, such as Johann Gottfried Herder, Goethe and Christoph Martin Wieland and was considered their most ingenious Princess of her time. She was also in  contact with Frederick II of Prussia, and was one of the few women he respected. After her death Ludwig IX. made a morganatic marriage to Marie Adélaide Cherouze who was created Countess pf Lemberg.
From his first marriage he had 8 children:
  • Karoline, married to Landgrave Friedrich V. of Hesse-Homburg
  • Friederike, married to King Friedrich Wilhelm II. of Prussia
  • Ludwig, who succeede his father as Landgrave and later became the first Grand Duke
  • Amalie, married to Hereditary Prince Karl Ludwig of Baden
  • Wilhelmine, orthodox Natalia Alexejevna, married to Grand 'Duke and Tsarevitch Paul Petrovitch of Russia, who in 1796 became Emperor Paul I.
  • Luise, married to Grand Duke Carl August of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
  • Christian
  • Friedrich
After the death of Landgrave Ludwig IX. in 1790 his oldest son succeeded him as landgrave Ludwig X. Because of the wars of revolutionary France he lost his possessions on the left bankof the Rhine,  the county of Hanau-Lichtenberg. After the capture of Mainz and Darmstadt in the residence itself was threatened and was temporarily cleared of the löandgravial family and the government. Through treaties with England and Holland Hessian troops fought against France, which was completed in 1799 by a declaration of neutrality. By the  Reichsdeputationshauptschluss 1802/3 Louis was compensated territorially.

Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine

With the accession of Ludwig to the Rhine Confederation 13.08.1806 he took, actually under the name Ludewig I, the title of Grand Duke of Hesse and was able to once again expand the territory. After the Congress of Vienna and the acquisition of the left bank of the Rhine Hesse, he added, on 07.08.1816 and by Rhine to his Title. On 18.03.1820, he gave the country a, by Karl Ludwig Wilhelm von Grolman designed, constitution, after it had been in Upper Hesse and Starkenburg to so-called "wild country days". Reform efforts by the Prime Minister of Grolman and its successor, Charles du Thil were not encouraged by Ludwig, yet approved. The politics of Ludwig in the cultural sector was mainly characterized by the opening of the court library, scholarships, promotion of theatrical and musical life and the work of Georg Moller, who is also the newly built Court Theatre in Darmstadt and Darmstadt ever gave a classical face.
In 1776 Ludwig had been engaged to rincess Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg, but  Katharina the Great decided that she should became the second wife of her son and heir Paul, who's first wife Ludwig's sisster Wilhelmine had just died in childbed. In 1777 he married his cousin Princess Luise of Hesse-Darmsadt, the daughter of his uncle Prince Georg Wilhelm.
They had the following children:
  • Ludwig, who succeeded him as Grand Duke
  • Luise, married to Prince Ludwig of Anhalt-Köthen
  • Georg, he made a morganatric marriage to Caroline Török de Szendrö, who was creatd first Baroness of Menden and later Countess of Nidda
  • Friedrich
  • Emil
  • Gustav
Grand Duke Luwdig I. died on 06.04.1830 and his oldest son now became Grand Duke Ludwig II. Untile then he had most of the time lived wirhdrawn in Darmstadt. In  actual government affairs, he could take no part, he participated only in the meetings of the First Chamber, and was from 1823, member of the State Council. Because of the Constitution of the Grand Duchy he also had seen 1820 as Grand Ducal Prince been a member of the first Chamber of the Estates of the Grand Duchy .  His demand of  the adoption of his considerable debt to the Sinking Fund brought him immediately after his accession into the  conflictwith the stands, which lasted his whole reign because of his growing reactionary direction. Shortly after his accession uprisings had occurred in Upper Hesse, which were, however, defeated by his brother, Prince Emil. Essentially sat Ludwig II. , in close cooperation with the Prime Minister Karl du Thil, the reform activities of his father. The events of the March Revolution he was no match and therefore on 05.03.1848 he gave his son, the future Ludwig III. the co-regency.
Grand Duke Ludwig II. married in 1804 his first cousin Princess Wilhelmine of Baden, a daughter of Hereditary Prince Karl Ludwig of Baden.
They had 5 surviving children:
  • Ludwig,who succeeded his father as Grand Duke
  • Karl, married to Princess Elisabeth of Prussia
    • Ludwig, who succeeded his childless unle, Grand Duke Luwig IV.
    • Heinrich, he made a morganatic marriage to Caroline Willich, who was created first Frau von Pöllnitz and later Baroness of Nidda, after her death he made a second morganatic marriage to Emilie Hrzic de Topuska who was created Baronnes of Dornberg
    • Anna, married to Grand Duke Friedrich Franz II. of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
    • Wilhelm, he made a morganatic marriage to Josephine Bender who was created Frau von Lichtenberg
  • Elisabeth, died young
  • Marie, orthodox Maria Alexandrovna, married to Emperor Alexander II. Nikolaievitch of Russia
  • Alexander, he made a morgantic marriage to Countess Julie Haauke, who was created Princess of Battenberg
    The morganatic branch Battenberg/Mountbatten

    When in in 1841 his sister Marie married the russian Tsarevitch, Prince Alexander went together with her to Russia where he had a successfull militar career in the Serice of the Tsar. There he fell in Love with a lady-in-waiting of his sister, Coutness Julie Hauke. Because of it he had to quiet his militar career and leave St. Petersburg. In 1851 he married Countess Julie who was created Countess of Battenberg by Grand Duke Ludwig III. In 1859 she was raised to the rank of Princess of Battenberg with the style of Serene Highness (HSH) for herself and her children. Grand Duke Ludwig III. gave the Family also the Castle Heiligenberg where the lived most of the time:
              They had the follwing children:
    • Marie, married to Fürst Gustaf Ernst zu Erbach-Schönberg
    • Ludwig/Louis, he served in the britsh navy, when the britsh royal House in 1917 changed is name to Windsor he had to renouce his german titlesand was created 1. Marquess of Milford haven, he was marreid to Princess Victoria of Hesse ay by Rhine, the oldest daughter of Grand Duke Ludwig IV.
      • Alice, married to Princess Andrew of Greece and Denmark
      • Louise, married as his second wife King Guistaf VI. Adolf of Sweden
      • George, 2.Marquess of Milford Haven, he married Countess Nadejda (Nada) de Torby, a daughter of Grand Duke Michail Michailovitch of Russia and his morganatic wife Countess Sophie of Merenberg
        • Tatjana
        • David, 3 Marquess of Milford Haven, married from 1950-1954 to Romaine Dahlgree Pierce, he married again in 1960 Lady Janet Meerced Bryce
          from his second marriage
          • George. 4. Marquess of Milford Haven, married first from 1989-1996 to Sarah Georgina Walker, since 1997 he is marreid to Clare Husted Steel. From his frost marriage he has 1 son, and 1 daughter
          • Ivar, he is married to Penelope Thompson,. They have 3 daughters
      •  Louis, from 1947 he was for a short time last Vice King and General Gouvefrneur of India, he served in the british navy where he among others became among others first Sealord and Admiral of the Fleet. Inn1979 he died in an attack by the IRA. In 1947 he was created EArlMountbatten of Burma (with a special remainder which allowed his oldest daughter to soucceed to the title). He was married to Hon Edwina Ashley, grand daughter ans heiress of Sir Ernest Cassel.
        They had 2 daughters
        • Patricia. 2 Countess Mountbatten of Burma,, she was married to John Ulick Knatchbull. 7. Lord Brabourne. They have 7 children
        • Pamela. married to David Hicks. They have 3 children.
    • Alexander, who was in 1879 elected as Prince of Bulgaria, after some pro-russian miltary coups and coup attempts he abdicated on 07.09.1886. He married in 1889 the opera singer Johanna Loisinger. After the marriage the couple toojk the Title Count/Countess of Hartenau. They had 2 children. 
    • Heinrich, married to Pricness Beatrice of Great Britain, youngest daughter of Queen Victoria
      • Alexander, when the britsh royal House in 1917 changed is name to Windsor he had to renouce his german titles, and was created 1. Marquesa of Carisbrooke,  he married Lady Irene Denison. they had 1 daughter.
      • Victoria Eugenie, married to King Alfonso XIII. ofSpain. They are the grand parents of the present spanish King Juan Carlos I.
      • Leopold
      • Maurice, who fell in 1914
    • Franz Joseph, married to Princess Anna of Montenegro

    On 05.03.1848 Grand Duek Ludwig II. apponted his oldest son Ludwig II. as co-regent. As he died only 3 months later on 16.06.1848 his son now became Grand Duke Ludwig III.As he was
    stimated to be more open-minded than his father, Ludwig II. became during the march Revolution the was hope of liberalis. One of his first actions after the death of his fathr was to  dismiss Karl du Thil, and apponted Henry of Gagern as Prime Minister and confirmed the "March demands". The government, he left largely to his ministers. In his views, he was conservative, but realistic enough to realize his dreams of absolutism primarily in historical studies and the care of traditional cultural property. He tended - strictly attentive to the sovereignty of his country - basically the Empire of Austria rather than the Kingdom of Prussia. From 1850, the Hessian federal policy was aligned according to the reactionary Prime Minister Reinhard Carl Friedrich von Dalwigk. After the defeat of 1866, the separation of Upper Hesse was only through intervention by the Tsar Alexander II, brother-in-law of the Grand Duke, prevent threatened with an invasion of East Prussia. However, the Grand Duchy with the province of Upper Hesse had to join the North German Confederation, which is - quite against the intentions of Ludwig III. - A considerable extent tied to Prussia. Hesse-Homburg, the Hessian back coubntry, Roedelheim and Konigsberg (Biebertal) where lost to Prussia. As a small compensation, the  the Grand Duchy received Nauheim and Rumpenheim that had belonged to the now defunct Electorate of Hesse. At the imperial proclamation in Versailles on 18.01.1871, he took not part. At the instigation of Bismarck had finally released in 1871, the Grand Duke Dalwigk after the occupation of France in the Franco-German war the Prussians had fallen into the hands of documents that proved that Dalwigk with Napoleon III. had conspired against Prussia. After his second morganatic marriage in 1868, Ludwig III, moved.from public life, and his designated successor and nephew the future Ludwig IV. largely adopted the necessary tasks and transactions.
    Grand Duke Ludwig III. married in  1833 Prince Mathildeof bavaria, a daughter of King Ludwig. I. The marriage remained childless. After she had died in 1862 he made in 1868 a second margantaic marriage to the Ballet dancer Anna Magdalena Appel who was created Baroness of Hochstätten. 
    After the death of Grand Duke Luwig III. on 13.06.1877 he was succeeeded by his nephew Ludwig IV. the, oldest son of his brother Karl. Under Ludwig IV. The business of government was led by  Julius Rinck Starck and Jacob Finger as Prime Minister in accordance with the liberal principles of the Grand Duke and the liberal parliamentary majority. Ludwig IV. had in 1862 married Princess Alice of Great Britain, the second daughter of the british Queen Victoria.  Her older sister Victoria was marred to the purssian Crown Prince Friedrich and therefore Ludwig became the brother-in-law of the prussian heir which whom he a friendship since his youth.   The influence of his wife liberalized the Darmstadt court. With English means the New Palace was built in Darmstadt. Since she had come to Darmstadt   Alice committed to public health care and in particular to improve the hygienic conditions have recently given birth. In Darmstadt in 1867 she founded together with the Luise Büchner named after her sick and the poor care association (Alice Women's Association). Grand Duchess Alice and Luise Büchner developed the profession of a nurse without denominational loyalty, and there was the Alice Society for Nursing, which spawned the free Alice sisterhood. With the active involvement of the princess emerged after first test in the hospitals of the wars of 1866 and 1870/71, Alice-Hospital Darmstadt. 1872 was on Alice's invitation in Darmstadt hold the first "German Women and acquisition teams" instead, which is dealt with were female employment in the post, the railroad and the telegraph service. Grand Duchess Alice  in 1878 just four weeks after her youngest daughter Marie, as well as those of diphtheria. In 1884 Ludwig IV. made a second morantaic marriage to Alexainde Hutten-Czapska, whow as created Countess of Romrod.  The marriage was, annulled in the same year under pressure from the royal realtives.
    Grand Duke Ludwig IV. and GRand Dcuhess Alcie had the following children:
    • Victoria, married to Prince Ludwig of Battenberg, since 1917 1. Marquess of Milford Haven 
    • Elisabeth, orthodox Elisabetha Feodorovna, married to Grand Duke Sergej Alexandrovitch of Russia
    • Irene, married to Prince Heinrich of Prussia
    • Ernst Ludwig, who succeeded his father as Grand Duke
    • Friedrich, he died with 3 after a fall out of a window
    • Alix, orthodox  Alexandra Fedorovna, married to Emperor Nikolaus II. Alexandrovitch of Russia
    • Marie, she died with 4 at diphteria 
    Grand Duke Ludwig IV. died in 1892 and was succeeded as Grand Duke by his only surviving son Ernst Ludwig. 1896 Ernst Ludwig joined the Hessian Ludwig Railway with Prussia signed a contract with a railway community. With the aim of "My Hesse country flourish and in him the art", Ernst Ludwig 1899, the Darmstadt Artists' Colony ("Mathildenhoehe") and promoted as a patron among others, the renowned artist Peter Behrens, Hans Christiansen, Ludwig Habich, Bernhard Hoetger, Albin Müller and Joseph Maria Olbrich. 1901 was the first exhibition of the artists' colony under the title of a document instead of German Art in Darmstadt. Three other exhibitions followed in 1904, 1908 and 1914. After the November Revolution of 1918, he refused to abdicate and therefore was from Darmstadt workers and soldiers on 9 Abgesetz November 1918.
    In 1894 Grand DukeErnst Ludwig married his cousin Princess Victoria Melita of Great Britain, Princess of   Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. But these marriage was not successfull and the broken marriage was divorced in 1901. In 1905 he made a second marriage to Princess Eleonore zu Solms-Hohensolms-Lich. 
    Gtrand Duke ERnst Ludwig died on 09,.10.1937
    he had the followng children
    from his first marriage:
    • Elisabeth
    from his second marriage:
    • Georg Donatus, who succeeded  his father as head of the Grand Ducal House
    • Ludwig, who succeeded his brother as head of the Grand Ducal House
    A few weeks after the death of Grand Duke Ernst Ludwig his son Hereditary Gradn Duke Georg, his wife Cecile, Grand Duchess Eleonore and Georg Donatus's son Ludwig and Alexander died on 16.11.1937 in a plan crash at Steen near oestende. The had been on their way to London to attend the Wedding of Prince Ludwig and the Hon Margaret Campbell Geddes. 
    Hereditary Prince Georg Donatus  was married to Princess Cecilie of Greece and Denmark. 
    They had 3 children
    •  Ludwig
    • Alexander
    • Johanna
    After the plane crash PrinceLudwig succeeded as Head of the Grand Ducal House. His planned marriage to the Hon. Margaret Campbell Geddes took still place in private. They soon adopted the little Princess Johanna, the daughter of Hereitary Grand Duke Georg Donatus but in 1939 she at at menigitis. 
    After the end of World War II, the couple for the engaged itself for the reconstruction of Darmstadt the arts, museums and charities, such as the Alice Hospital, Eleonore home and the Red Cross committed. [9] Louis was among other things, co-founder of the Institute for new technical form, design Council, the Bauhaus Archive, created the colony of New Artists Rosenhöhe and and designed the German pavilion for the Expo 1958 in Brussels. As a lover of classical music, he promoted the Ansbacher Festival and the Aldeburgh Festival. 
    The marriage of Prince Ludwig and Pricness Margaret who where considered to be very popular with the hessian pulation remained childless. In 1960 the adopted the then Hereitary Prince Moritz from the Hesse-Cassel line as their heir. 
    Prince Ludwig died on 30.05.1968 and therefore the line of Hesse-Darmstadt became exticnt in the male linme. His widow Princess Margaret surived him for almost 30 years and with her death on 26.01.1997 the last member of the House died.